عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and purpose: Use of antibiotics and other growth stimulants The European Union has restricted their use on farms because of the potential for antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria and the impact they can have on human health. And determined the identification of alternative compounds for them in this industry. The use of additives such as herbs as antimicrobials can be a good alternative to antibiotics. Medicinal plants due to their antimicrobial properties improve the process of digestion, fermentation and production of animals. The present experiment was performed with the aim of adding Plantago major to the diet of fattening lambs on nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation and functional parameters.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 7 replications using 21 kind male lambs of approximately 4 months with an average weight of 29.11 ± 4.44 kg. The experimental diet was adjusted based on the nutritional needs table. Experimental treatments included control diet and 3 and 6% dry matter diets. The lambs were randomly divided into three groups and after a 14-day acclimatization period, they were reared in solitary confinement for 90 days. To evaluate growth and fattening performance, lambs were weighed before the experiment and then every 15 days before morning feeding with 12 hours of starvation. To measure the apparent digestibility of diets, dry matter intake, feed residue and total feces of sheep were recorded daily for 7 days from the end of the experimental period. To evaluate the concentration of volatile fatty acids and ruminal ammonia nitrogen at the end of the fattening period using esophageal catheter from the rumen of each animal, 50 ml of ruminal fluid was collected and then the pH of the samples was measured by pH meter. Rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration was measured by titration with 0.1 normal sulfuric acid and ruminal volatile fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography. Rumen protozoa were counted according to the dehydration method.
Results: The results of this study showed that the use of Plantago major plant increased growth performance factors such as daily feed intake, daily weight gain, total weight of the whole period and feed conversion ratio. Although the use of Plantago major plant had no significant effect on the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and NDF, but it was increased numerically. On the other hand, the addition of Plantago major in the diet had a significant effect on the total and pattern of volatile fatty acids in ruminal fluid, ammonia nitrogen concentration and protozoan concentration, but showed a significant decreasing trend on ruminal pH.
Conclusion: In general, the effect of adding large leaves on nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters and performance of fattening lambs showed that the use of Plantago major, especially at the level of 6% in the diet of fattening lambs can improve the yield and fermentation parameters.
Keywords: Lamb fattening, digestibility, rumen parameters, fattening function, Plantago major