عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objectives: High producing ruminants require a significant amount of rumen escape protein. Researches have reported a correlation between increased yield and decreased ruminal degradation of crude protein (CP). Cottonseed is a common feedstuff for ruminants due to its high fiber, energy and protein. But the CP degradability of this ingredient is relatively high in the rumen. Several feed processing methods have been developed to decrease ruminal CP degradation such as heat treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heat treatment on chemical composition and rumen degradation kinetics of dry matter (DM) and CP of cottonseed and its effect on Dalagh lambs growth performance.
Materials and methods: The cottonseed used in this study was processed for 15 minutes at temperatures of 115 and 125 °C. After processing, dry matter (DM), Ash and organic matter (OM), ether extract (EE), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were determined according to standard procedures. Degradability trial of DM and CP was done by nylon bag technique using three rumen fistulated male Dalagh sheep. In vitro digestibility and fermentation parameters were determined with batch culture method. Performance trial was performed for 56 days using 18 six- month old Dalagh sheep with a mean weight of 34.75 2 2.69 kg. The lambs were divided into 3 equal groups and each group received one of the diets contained unprocessed cottonseed and heat processed cottonseed at temperatures of 115 and 125 °C. The diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Performance traits including weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were measured. At the end of experiment, blood samples were taken from sheep to determine the osmotic fragility of red blood cells, blood parameters and hepatic enzymes. Statistical analysis of data from this experiment was performed using SAS (9.1) software and GLM procedure.
Results: Processing had no effect on chemical composition of cottonseed (p < 0.05). Washout fraction, degradation rate of b fraction and effective degradability of DM and CP decreased by heat processing (p < 0.05). The effect of 125 ° C on reducing degradability was greater than that of 115 ° C. So that effective degradability of CP at rumen out flow rates of 2, 5 and 8 percent/h reduced from 84.88, 79.26 and 75.15 percent in control to 83.26, 75.79 and 70.81 percent and 82.32, 73.34 and 67.63 percent in samples processed with 115 and 125 °C respectively. Heat treatment had no effect on in vitro digestibility of dry matter and organic matter, partitioning factor, microbial mass production and its efficiency (P>0.05). But gas yield was decreased (P <0.05) by 125 ° C heat treatment (40.76 ml) compared to control (47.02). Heat processing had no effect on performance traits of animals (P>0.05). However, the daily weight gain in sheep fed heat treated cottonseed was significantly higher than control. Heat treated cottonseed nutrition had no effect on osmotic fragility of red blood cells, blood metabolites and hepatic enzymes.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that although processing with temperatures of 115 and 125 ° C for 15 minutes reduced the effective degradability of cottonseed in the rumen, but had no effect on blood parameters and performance of lambs. Further research is needed to determine the optimum temperature and duration of application to improve the nutritional value of cotton seed.
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