بررسی اثرات کروم -متیونین بر عملکرد رشد، فراسنجه‌های خونی و سلامت گوساله‌های شیرخوار هلشتاین تحت استرس گرمایی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای ، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل

3 بخش تحقیقات علوم دامی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اردبیل(مغان)،سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اردبیل

4 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

5 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: کروم در متابولیسم نشخوارکنندگان نقش مهمی ایفا می‌کند. شرایطی از جمله افزایش سرعت رشد، تنش و زیست فراهمی پائین کروم در منابع خوراکی، منجر به تخلیه ذخایر کروم در بدن شده و اختلالات متابولیکی و کاهش عملکرد رشد رخ می‌دهد. کروم یک عنصر ضروری برای حیوانات و انسان می‌باشد. این عنصر در قالب کمپلکسی به نام عامل تحمل گلوکز با بالا بردن تحمل گلوکز و حساسیت سلول‌های بدن به انسولین میزان انرژی بیشتری برای تولید و رشد دام فراهم می‌کند. کروم به عنوان کوفاکتور انسولین شناخته شده و بیان شده است که برای فعالیت برخی آنزیم‌های خاص، تثبیت پروتئین‌ها و اسید‌های نوکلئیک ضروری می‌باشد. بنابراین اختلال در متابولیسم پروتئین و کربوهیدرات‌ها سبب کاهش حساسیت انسولین در بافت‌ها می‌شود لذا در زمان کمبود کروم و شرایط استرس‌زا کاهش وزن بدن مشاهده می‌شود. کروم با کاهش رادیکال‌های آزاد سبب بهبود وضعیت سلامتی شده و همچنین با کاهش میزان کورتیزول خون سبب تحریک سیستم ایمنی و مقاوم شدن بدن در برابر بیماری‌های در زمان تنش می‌شود. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی اثرات مکمل کروم-متیونین بر عملکرد رشد و فراسنجه‌های خونی و وضعیت سلامت گوساله‌های شیرخوار تحت تنش گرمایی بود.
مواد و روش: بدین منظور تعداد ۳۰ رأس گوساله هلشتاین با میانگین سنی 1 الی 8 روز و میانگین وزنی 2±39 کیلوگرم به‌صورت یک آزمایشی در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با ۲ تیمار و ۱۵ تکرار انتخاب شدند. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل: 1) جیره پایه بدون مکمل کروم و 2)جیره پایه به همراه 05/0 میلی‌گرم کروم-متیونین بر حسب وزن متابولیکی بودند. مصرف خوراک به‌صورت روزانه و وزن بدن در روزهای تولد، 30، 60 و 65 دوره پرورشی ثبت و ضریب تبدیل خوراک برای هر گروه محاسبه گردید. برای تعیین فراسنجه‌های خونی در زمان‌های 30 و 65 روز دوره پرورشی از سیاهرگ گردنی وداج خون‌گیری به عمل آمد. میانگین ماکزیم شاخص دمایی-رطوبتی در طول دور پرورشی 2/91 ثبت گردید که نشان از تنش حرارتی شدید بود.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان دادند استفاده از مکمل کروم متیونین در گوساله‌های شیرخوار تحت استرس گرمایی تاثیر معنی‌داری بر میزان مصرف خوراک، وزن نهایی، افزایش وزن روزانه، ضریب تبدیل غذایی و رشد اسکلتی در طی ماه‌های اول، دوم و کل دوره پرورشی ایجاد نکرد. غلظت خونی گلوتاتیون پراکسیداز تحت تاثیر مکمل کروم متیونین قرار گرفت بطوریکه میزان غلظت خونی گلوتاتیون در گوساله‌های دریافت کننده مکمل کروم 78/57 در مقابل 19/47 واحد بر گرم بود (04/0>P).
همچنین تعداد تنفس و ضربان قلب در گوساله‌های دریافت کننده مکمل کروم پایین بود بطوریکه به لحاظ عددی تعداد تنفس و ضربان قلب در گوساله‌های مکمل شده با کروم- متیونین بتریتب برابر با 70/50 در مقابل 40/54 با در دقیقه و 10/98 در مقابل 50/104 بار در قیقه بودند. اما نمره قوام مدفوع و دمای رکتوم تحت تاثیر مصرف کروم در گوساله‌ها قرار نگرفتند.
نتیجه گیری: استفاده از کروم متیونین در گوساله‌های شیرخوار سبب بهبود غلظت گلوتاتیون پراکسیداز، قوام مدفوع و دمای رکتوم گردید اما تاثیری بر عملکرد رشد و اندازه اسکلتی نداشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of chromium-methionine on growth performance, blood parameters and health of Holstein suckling calves under heat stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • sayyad seifzadeh 1
  • jamal seifdavati 2
  • mahmud sahraei 3
  • vahideh razmazar 4
  • fatemeh behkeh noshahry 5
1 university of mohaghegh ardebili
2 university of mohaghegh ardebili
3 Department of Animal Science Research, Ardebil Province Research and Training Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources (Moghan), Agricultural Research
4 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
5 universty of zabol
چکیده [English]

Background and objective: Chromium (Cr) plays an important role in ruminant’s metabolism. Situations such as accelerating growth, stress and low bioavailability of Cr in feedstuffs, result in depletion of chromium stores of body, therefore, metabolic disorders and growth retardation occurs. Chromium is an essential element for animals and humans It functions as cofactor for insulin and it is assumed to be essential for activation of certain enzymes and stabilization of proteins and nucleic acids Therefore, impaired carbohydrate and protein metabolism, decreased insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues and thereby decreased weight gain would be expected in Cr-deficient individuals especially under stressful conditions. Chromium improves health by reducing free radicals and also stimulates the immune system and makes the body more resistant to diseases during stress by lowering blood cortisol levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the Effects of chromium-methionine on growth performance, blood parameters and health of Holstein suckling calves under heat stress.
Material and methods: For this experiment, 30 newly-born Holstein calves (average age 1-8 days), average weight 39±1 kg) were used in a completely randomized arrangement with 2 treatments and 15 replications. The experimental treatments were: 1) Basal diet without any additive (control), 2) Basal diet with 0.05mg of chromium-methionine. Daily feed intake were recorded daily and body weight were recorded at birth days, 30, 60 and 65 breeding periods and feed conversion ratio was calculated for each group. The average maximum temperature–humidity index was 91.2 U, indicating severe environmental heat load.
Results: The results showed that the use of chromium methionine supplementation in calves under heat stress had not a significant effect on feed intake, final weight, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and skeletal growth during the first, second and entire breeding months. The blood concentration of glutathione peroxidase was affected by chromium methionine supplementation, while the blood concentration of glutathione in calves receiving chromium supplementation was 57.78 versus 47.19 u/g (P <0.04). Respiration rate, breaths/min and heart rate in calves receiving chromium were low, so that numerically the number of breaths and heart rate in chromium-methionine-supplemented calves was 50.50 versus 54.40 per minute and 10 / 98 were in front of 10/50 times. Rectal temperature and fecal score were not affected by chromium intake in calves.
Conclusion: Results of this experiments showed that the use of chromium methionine in suckling calves improved glutathione peroxidase concentration, fecal score and rectal temperature but had no effect on growth performance and skeletal size

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Growth performance
  • chromium-methionine
  • blood parameters
  • Holstein calf
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