تاثیر منابع مختلف نشاسته و اسیدهای چرب بر عملکرد، ترکیبات شیر و قابلیت هضم مواد مغذی در میش‌های قزل دوره انتقال

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 علوم دامی،دانشکده کشاورزی،دانشگاه ارومیه،ارومیه،ایرانَ

2 عضو هیئت علمی گروه علوم دامی دانشگاه ارومیه

3 استادیار/دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: دوره انتقال در دام‌های شیری به دلیل تغییرات ناگهانی و عمیق فیزیولوژیکی و متابولیکی حین گذر از مرحله غیر شیرواری به دوره شیردهی از اهمیت خاصی برخوردار است. بکارگیری روش‌های مختلف تأمین انرژی با کمک جیره‌های گلوکوژنیک یا لیپوژنیک در طی دوره‌های قبل و بعد از زایش راهکارهای اصلی برای اجتناب از توسعه بیماری‌های متابولیکی و افزایش راندمان آبستنی شناخته شده‌اند. هدف از آزمایش حاضر، ارزیابی تأثیر منابع مختلف نشاسته و اسید چرب بر عملکرد، ترکیبات شیر و قابلیت هضم مواد مغذی در دوره انتقال میش‌های قزل بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: بدین منظور، آزمایشی با استفاده از ۲۰ رأس میش آبستن نژاد قزل با میانگین 3 سال سن و میانگین وزن بدن 2/2±65 کیلوگرم از ۳۰ روز مانده به زمان مورد انتظار زایش تا ۳۰ روز پس از زایش، در قالب یک طرح کاملا تصادفی و با روش فاکتوریل 2×2 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل: ۱) جیره بر پایه ذرت + اسیدهای چرب اشباع (مکمل اسید پالمتیک (رومی فت))، ۲) جیره بر پایه ذرت + اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع محافظت شده در شکمبه (مکمل امگا- ۳ ماهی (پرشیافت)) ، ۳)جیره بر پایه جو + اسیدهای چرب اشباع (مکمل اسید پالمتیک)، ۴) جیره بر پایه جو + اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع محافظت شده در شکمبه (مکمل امگا-۳ ماهی) بودند.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که تیمارهای آزمایشی اثر معنی‌داری بر قابلیت هضم ماده خشک، ماده آلی، پروتئین، عصاره اتری و خاکستر نداشته است (05/0<P). منبع نشاسته و نوع مکمل چربی اثر معنی داری بر مصرف خوراک در قبل و بعد زایش و وزن تولد بره‌ها نداشت (05/0<P). در بعد از زایش اثر منبع نشاسته و منبع اسیدهای چرب بر تغییرات وزن میش‌ها معنی‌دار بود (05/0>P). به گونه‌ای که در میش‌های تغذیه شده با جیره‌های حاوی دانه جو کاهش وزن بیشتری نسبت به جیره‌های حاوی دانه ذرت مشاهده شد. تولید شیر و پروتئین شیر تحت تاثیر منبع نشاسته و نوع مکمل چربی قرار نگرفت (05/0<P). میزان تولید شیر تحت تاثیر هیچ یک از تیمارهای آزمایشی قرار نگرفت. درصد چربی شیر تیمارهای حاوی دانه جو بصورت معنی‌داری بیشتر از تیمارهای حاوی دانه ذرت بود (05/0>P)، و همچنین در بین تیمارهای حاوی دانه جو، تیمار مکمل اسید پالمیتیک دارای درصد چربی شیر بیشتری نسبت به تیمار مکمل امگا-3 بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که احتمالا استفاده از دانه ذرت و مکمل اسیدهای چرب اشباع باعث کاهش وزن کمتری در میش‌ها در دوره بعد از زایمان می‌شود که البته تایید این نتایج نیاز به آزمایشات عملکردی و متابولیکی بیشتری دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of starch and fatty acids source on performance, milk yield and composition and nutrients digestibility of Qezel ewes during transition period

نویسندگان [English]

  • asghar mohammadiyan 1
  • Hamed Khalilvandi 3
1 Animal Science,Agriculture,Urmia,Urmia,Iran
3 Urmia University, animal science department
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: The transition period of dairy animals is most important because of the sudden and profound physiological and metabolic changes in the course of transition from pregnancy to lactation. The use of different energy supply methods by glucogenic or lipogenic diets during the pre and post partum periods has been recognized as the main strategies for prevention of metabolic diseases and increasing the pregnancy efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different sources of starch and fatty acids on performance, milk yield and composition and nutrients digestibility of Qezel ewes during transition period.
Materials and methods: 20 pregnant Qezel ewes with average age of 3 years and average body weight of 65 ± 2 kg from 30 days to the expected time of parturition until 30 days after parturition in a completely randomized design and implemented with 2×2 factorial method. Treatments included: 1) Corn-based diet + Saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid supplement (Roomi Fat)®); 2) Corn-based diet + unsaturated fatty acids (Omega-3 fish) (Persia fat) ®); 3) Barley-based diet + Saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid supplement) and 4) Barley-based diet + unsaturated fatty acids (supplement omega-3 fish). Ewes had a free access to water and feed intake was a ad libitum. Feed intake was measured a daily.
Results: The results of this study showed that the starch and fatty acids source had no significant effect on digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, protein, ether extract and ash (P >0.05). The starch and fatty acids source had no significant effect on feed intake before and after parturition and birth weight of lambs (P >0.05). After parturition, the effect of starch and fatty acids source on the ewes weight changes was significant and in the ewes fed diets containing barley grain, weight loss was higher than corn grain diets (P <0.05). Milk production and milk protein was not affected by the source of starch and fatty acid (P >0.05). Milk fat percentage in treatments containing barley grain was significantly higher than corn grain (P <0.05), as well as in barley-containing treatments, supplemental palmitic acid treatment had a higher milk fat percentage than diets containing of omega- 3 fatty acid.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the use of corn grain and supplementation of saturated fatty acid would reduce the weight loss in ewes after parturition, which confirmation of these results requires more functional and metabolic experiment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • barley grain
  • corn grain
  • fatty acid supplementation
  • Transition period
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