اثر اسیدهای چرب پالمیتیک و استئاریک و آلفا-لینولنیک بر مصرف خوراک، تولید و ترکیبات شیر گاوهای تازه‌زای هلشتاین

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای تغذیه دام دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

3 گروه علوم دام و طیور، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران

4 گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس

5 پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: مکمل‌های چربی بی اثر بر فعالیت شکمبه، به‌دلیل محتوای بالای انرژی و تطبیق‌پذیری آن در مزارع پرورش گاوشیری، به یک جزء رایج اقلام تشکیل دهنده جیره تبدیل شده‌اند. چربیآن‌ها معمولاً حاوی غلظت‌های بالایی از اسیدهای چرب زنجیر بلند شامل پالمیتیک، استئاریک، اولئیک و لینولئیک می‌باشند. تحقیقات چند سال گذشته نشان داده است که اسیدچرب تنها یک منبع انرژی نیست، بلکه کاربردهای مختلف متابولیکی در بدن گاو داشته و از راه‌های مختلفی در تولید آن‌ها شرکت می‌کند. در این پژوهش اثرات دو اسید چرب اشباع پالمیتیک و استئاریک که بیشترین مقدار مکمل‌های چربی را شامل می‌شوند، در حضور و عدم حضور امگا-3 بررسی شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: 32 راس گاو شیری با بیش از دو شکم زایش، بلافاصله پس از زایش، وارد طرح آزمایشی در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 4 تیمار (فاکتوریل 2×2) شده و به‌مدت 65 روز در جایگاه‌های انفرادی نگهداری شدند و تولید و ترکیبات شیر هر یک از آنها اندازه‌گیری شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل 1) جیره پایه با 5/1 درصد مکمل غنی از اسید استئاریک (75 درصد)، 2) جیره پایه با 5/1 درصد مکمل غنی از اسید استئاریک (75 درصد) با مکمل امگا-3، 3) جیره پایه با 5/1 درصد مکمل غنی از اسید پالمیتیک (75 درصد) و 4) جیره پایه با 5/1 درصد مکمل غنی از اسید پالمیتیک (75 درصد) با مکمل امگا-3 بودند.
یافته‌ها: اثر متقابل اسیدچرب اشباع با امگا-3 بر تولید شیر معنی‌دار بود (01/0≥P). گاوهایی که با تیمار اسید پالمیتیک همراه با امگا-3، تغذیه شدند، بیشترین مقدار شیر را تولید کردند (92/50 کیلوگرم) اما سایر تیمارها اختلافی با یکدیگر نداشتند (01/0≤P). اثر نوع اسیدچرب اشباع بر تولید شیر تصحیح شده بر اساس 5/3 درصد چربی و شیر تصحیح شده بر اساس انرژی، معنی‌دار نبود (05/0≤P) اما اثر امگا- 3 به ترتیب در سطح 1 و 5 درصد معنی‌دار بود . مصرف ماده خشک گاوهایی که با اسید استئاریک بدون امگا-3 تغذیه شدند (70/24 کیلوگرم)، بیشتر از سایر تیمارها بود (05/0≥P). اما تفاوت معنی‌داری بین سه تیمار آزمایشی دیگر وجود نداشت (05/0≤P). در بررسی ترکیبات شیر، درصد چربی و کل چربی شیر تولیدی، اثر متقابل اسیدچرب اشباع با امگا-3 و همچنین اثر نوع اسیدچرب اشباع معنی‌دار نبود و تنها اثر امگا-3، بر درصد چربی و کل چربی به ترتیب در سطح 5 و 1 درصد معنی‌دار بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: بر اساس نتایج حالص از این پژوهش، استفاده توأم از اسید آلفا-لینولنیک و اسیدهای چرب اشباع به ویژه اسید پالمیتیک، تولید شیر گاوهای هلشتاین را در اوایل دوره شیردهی، افزایش داد. با مصرف اسید استئاریک در اوایل دوره شیردهی می‌توان ماده خشک مصرفی دام را بهبود بخشید و افت نمره وضعیت بدنی گاو را کاهش داد. همچنین مصرف امگا-3، درصد و کل چربی شیر گاوهای شیری را در اوایل دوره شیردهی بهبود بخشید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of palmitic and stearic acid and alpha-linolenic fatty acids on feed intake, milk production and milk components in Holstein fresh cows

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Samiei Zafarghandi 1
  • Ali Asadi Alamouti 3
  • farzad ghanbari 4
  • Mehdi Dehghan-Banadaky 5
1 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
3 Department of animal and Poultry Sciences, of Aboureyhan, University of Tehran
4 dept. of animal sciences
5 College of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Tehran University
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Inert or ineffective fat supplements on rumen activity, have been converted to a common ingredient in rations due to its high energy content and its adaptability in dairy farms. Inert fats on rumen activity usually contain high concentrations of long chain fatty acids, including palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic. Research over the last few years has shown that fatty acids are not just a source of energy, but also, have different metabolic applications in cow body and contributed in various ways in their production. In this study, the effects of two palmitic and stearic saturated fatty acid supplements containing the highest levels of fat supplements are studied in the presence and absence of omega-3.
Materials and Methods: thirty two dairy cows with more than two parturition were introduced into the experimental design with randomized complete block design with 4 treatments (2 × 2 factorials). Instantly after delivery and kept in individual place for 65 days. The production and milk components of each one were measured. The treatments included: 1) Base diet with 1.5% stearic acid supplement (75%) without omega-3; 2) Base diet with 1.5% stearic acid supplement with omega-3 3) Base diet with 1.5% palmitic acid supplement (75%) without omega-3, and 4) Base diet with 1.5% palmitic acid supplement without omega-3.
Results: The results of this study showed that In comparison of milk production, the interaction of omega-3 and saturated fatty acids on milk production was significant and milk production of cows fed with palmitic acid treatment with omega-3 was highest (50.92) and There was a significant difference with other treatments (P≤0.01), but there was no significant difference between the other treatments (P≤0.01). Dry matter intake of cows fed with stearic acid without omega-3 was highest (24.77) and had a significant difference with other treatments (P≤0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the three treatments (P≤0.05). In the study of milk components including, fat percentage and total milk fat, the interaction of saturated fatty acids with omega-3 as well as the effect of type of saturated fatty acids were not significant but also, omega-3 effect on fat percentage and total fat was at level 5% and 1% has been significant.
Conclusion: Using the combination of α-linolenic acid with saturated fatty acids, especially palmitic acid, it is possible to increase the production of Holstein cows in fresh cows and early lactation. With the use of stearic acid in the early lactation, the dry matter can be increased by improving of dry matter intake and reducing BCS. Also, with omega-3 consumption, you can improve the percentage and total fat milk of cows during early lactation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Stearic Acid
  • Palmitic Acid
  • Omega-3
  • α-Linolenic Acid
  • Fresh Cows
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