تأثیر پرتو گاما، هیدروکسید سدیم، اوره و پلی اتیلن گلایکول بر ترکیبات فنولیک، تولید گاز و ساخت پروتئین میکروبی ضایعات پسته پاک کنی در شرایط آزمایشگاهی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشکده کشاورزی، پزشکی و صنعتی کرج. پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هسته ای. سازمان انرژی اتمی ایران.

2 استاد گروه علوم دامی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استادیار دپارتمان کشاورزی، دانشکده فنی و کشاورزی شهریار، دانشگاه فنی و حرفه ای استان تهران، ایران

4 پژوهشکده کشاورزی هسته ای، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هسته ای، کرج، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: سالیانه مقدار زیادی از ضایعات پسته پاک کنی در ایران تولید می‌شود که دفع نادرست آنها باعث آلودگی زیست محیطی می شود. ﻣﺸﮑﻞ اﺻﻠﯽﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ضایعات پسته پاک کنی در ﺗﻐﺬﯾﻪ دام، وجود ﺳﻄﻮح ﺑﺎﻻی ﺗﺎﻧﻦ و ﺗﺮﮐﯿﺒﺎت ﻓﻨﻮﻟﯿﮏ در آن اﺳﺖ که متابولیسم دام را در زمان مصرف آن بوسیله دام را تحت تأثیر قرار می دهد. آزمایش های برون تنی نشان داده اند که تانن موجب کاهش ساخت پروتئین میکروبی به دلیل اثرات ضد میکروبی می شود. در اﯾﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮ ﺗﯿﻤﺎرﻫﺎی پرتو گاما در دز 10 کیلوگری، ﻣﺤﻠﻮل 4 درصد هیدروکسید سدیم، محلول 4 درصد اوره و پلی اتیلن گلایکول بر مقدار ترکیبات فنولی، تولید گاز و ساخت پروتئین میکروبی ضایعات پسته پاک کنی در شرایط آزمایشگاهی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
مواد و روش‌ها: ضایعات پسته پاک کنی واریته اوحدی در سایه خشک شدند و در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تیمار پرتو گاما (دز 10 کیلوگری)، محلول هیدروکسید (4 درصد) و اوره (4 درصد) در 3 تکرار عمل آوری شدند. ترکیبات فنولیک اندازه گیری شدند. با استفاده از روش تولید گاز در زمان های 2، 4، 6، 8، 12، 24، 48، 72 و 96 پتانسیل تولید گاز، ضرایب تولید گاز، انرژی قابل متابولیسم، ماده آلی قابل هضم و تولید اسیدهای چرب فرار اندازه‌گیری شدند. در آزمون تولید گاز از تیمار پلی اتیلن گلایکول نیز استفاده شد. بر اساس آزمون گاز انجام شده و محاسبه زمانی که نیمی از مقدار کل گاز تولید شد، در آزمون تولید گاز دیگری ساخت و راندمان ساخت پروتئین میکروبی با استفاده از اوره 2 بار نشاندار شده با نیتروژن-15 (10 اتم درصد) در محلول بافر اندازه گیری شد. تخمین ضرایب تولید گاز با استفاده از معادله ارسکوف و مک دونالد و مقایسه میانگین ها با نرم افزار آماری SAS گیری شد.
یافته‌ها: تیمارهای هیدروکسید سدیم و اوره باعث کاهش ترکیبات فنولیک، تانن کل و تانن متراکم شدند (01/0>P) و پرتو گاما باعث کاهش فنول کل و تانن کل ضایعات پسته پاک کنی شد (01/0>P). در میان تیمارها بیشترین تاثیر متعلق به تیمار هیدروکسید سدیم بود که باعث کاهش 43/60 ، 25/80 و 89/88 درصدی به ترتیب در فنول کل، تانن کل و تانن متراکم شد. مقدار تولید گاز در طی 96 ساعت بین 76/18 تا 13/29 میلی لیتر به ازاء 200 میلی گرم ماده خشک متغیر بود که کمترین مقدار تولید گاز به تیمار هیدروکسید سدیم و اوره تعلق داشت (01/0>P). میزان الحاق نیتروژن-15 در تیمارهای هیدروکسید سدیم (013/0 میلی گرم) و اوره (014/0 میلی گرم) در مقایسه با شاهد (017/0 میلی گرم) کمتر بود (01/0>P). راندمان ساخت پروتئین میکروبی در تیمار هیدروکسید سدیم بیشترین (049/0) مقدار بود (01/0>P). همچنین، تیمارهای هیدروکسید سدیم و اوره باعث کاهش انرژی قابل متابولیسم، ماده آلی قابل هضم و اسیدهای چرب فرار شدند (01/0>P).
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد که اگرچه استفاده از هیدروکسید سدیم و اوره مقدار ترکیبات فنولی در ضایعات پسته پاک کنی را کاهش داد، با وجود این تولید گاز و الحاق نیتروژن-15 در این تیمارها کاهش یافت. داده های این آزمایش نشان داد که حذف تانن از ضایعات پسته پاک کنی الزاماً به معنی بهبود تمامی خصوصیات تخمیری آن در محیط آزمایشگاه نیست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects gamma irradiation, sodium hydroxide, urea and polyethylene glycol on phenolic compounds, in vitro gas production kinetics and microbial protein synthesis of pistachio by-products

نویسندگان [English]

  • reza valizadeh 2
  • Abbas Ali Naserian 2
  • Samaneh Ghasemi 3
  • Mir Ahmad Mousavi 4
2 Excellence Center in Animal Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 and agriculture collage of Shahriyar, Tecjnical and vocational university,Tehran, Iran
4 Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute, P. O. Box: 31485–498, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: High amount of pistachio by-product are produced annually in Iran that most of them are considered as agricultural waste. Main problem regarding feeding PB to livestock is the presence of phenolics and tannins which can affect their utilization by ruminants. In vitro studies have shown that tannin reduced microbial protein synthesis due to its antimicrobial effects. The main objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effects gamma irradiation (10 kGy), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), urea and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the tannins and phenolic compounds, gas production (GP) and microbial protein synthesis (MPS) of PB.

Material and Methods: Pistachio by-product was obtained from a pistachio processing factory and was air dried before it was used in this study. Samples were treated with 4% NaOH, 4% urea solution and gamma radiation (10 kGy) and assigned in a completely randomized design. Phenolic compounds were analyzed according to standard methods. Gas production (GP) test was performed and produced gas were recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. PEG were used in line with treatments. Metabolisable energy (ME), digestible organic matter (DOM) and volatile fatty acids (SCFA) were estimated via available equations. In another run of gas test (using 10.0 atom % 15N-double labeled urea in buffer solution), at the 12 h of incubation gas volume was recorded and the contents of the syringe were transferred quantitatively to tubes for determination of apparently undegraded residue, 15N incorporation and efficiency of microbial mass production. To estimation gas production coefficients were done by Orskov and McDonald equation and data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS.

Results: NaOH and urea treatments decreased (p < 0.01) total phenolic (TP), total tannin (T), condensed tannin of PB and GR decreased (p < 0.01) TP, T of PB. Among treatments NaOH decreased TP, TT and CT more than others (%60.43, %80.25 and % 88.89, respectively). Cumulative GP at 96 h varied between 18.76 and 29.13 ml/200 mg DM. The lowest (p < 0.01) GP at 96 h observed with NaOH and urea treated PB. Incorporation of 15N into the microbial mass was lowest (p < 0.01) in NaOH (0.013 mg) and urea (0.014 mg) in comparison with the control (0.017 mg). Efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS) expressed as 15N enrichment in microbial mass (15N) per ml of produced gas (G) after 12 h of incubation was highest (p < 0.01) for NaOH treated PB (0.049 mg 15N/ml G) followed by control, urea and GR treated PB. NaOH and urea treatments decreased (p < 0.01) ME, DOM and SCFA production.

Conclusion: Findings of the present study suggest that although supplementation of PB with NaOH, urea and GR would decrease T, but they decreased gas production and 15N enrichment in microbial mass. Data of the present study showed that the elimination of tannin from PB does not necessarily mean improving its fermentation properties in in vitro.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Pistachio by-product
  • phenolic compounds
  • Tannin
  • Microbial protein synthesis
  • gas production
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