تاثیر شکل فیزیکی خوراک و اندازة ذرات علوفه بر گوارش پذیری، تولید شیر و رفتار تغذیه‌ای گاوهای شیرده هلشتاین

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

3 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه رازی

4 استاد موسسه تحقیقات علوم دامی

چکیده

چکیده:
سابقه و هدف: علی‌رغم مزیت‌های جیره کاملاً مخلوط نسبت به جیره سنتی، مشکل حجیم بودن جیره هنوز حل نشده است. جابجایی، ذخیره و حمل و نقل بقایای زراعی خشبی با وزن حجمی پایین نیز از مشکلات عمده در استفاده از آنها در تغذیة دام به خصوص ارسال آن به مناطق دور محسوب می‌شود. یکی از راه‌های پیشنهادی برای غلبه بر این مشکلات، فشرده نمودن در قالب بلوک‌ خوراک کامل با چگالی بالا می‌باشد. بلوک خوراکی کامل با توجه به خصوصیات متمایز خود می‌تواند بر تولید شیر و رفتار تغذیه‌ای گاوهای شیرده موثر بوده و رفتار خوردن دام را تغییر دهد. تغییر اندازۀ قطعات علوفۀ موجود در بلوک خوراک کامل نیز ممکن است موجب ایجاد پاسخ‌های عملکردی -گوارشی متفاوتی در حیوان شود.
مواد و روش‌ها: هشت راس گاو شیرده هلشتاین (5/25±106روزهای شیردهی؛ میانگین تولید شیر 30/3±18/23 کیلوگرم؛ میانگین وزن بدن 15/38±16/492 کیلوگرم) به صورت تصادفی در جایگاه‌های انفرادی و در قالب یک طرح مربع لاتین 4×4 چرخشی قرار گرفتند. چهار جیرة آزمایشی شامل بلوک‌های حاوی علوفه با میانگین هندسی قطعات 15/4 میلی‌متر (بلوک بلند) و 68/2 میلی‌متر (بلوک کوتاه)، خوراک‌های مش حاوی علوفة با میانگین هندسی قطعات 15/4 میلی‌متر (مش بلند) و68/2 میلی‌متر (مش کوتاه) بودند. تاثیر دو شکل فیزیکی خوراک شامل خوراک کاملاً مخلوط به شکل بلوک و مش و نیز اندازة ذرات کوتاه یا بلند بر رفتار تغذیه‌ای، گوارش‌پذیری خوراک و تولید شیر گاوهای شیرده هلشتاین بررسی شد.
یافته‌ها: مقدار مصرف ماده ‌خشک و ماده ‌آلی درگاوهای تعلیف‌ شده با بلوک کوتاه بیش‌تر از گروه با مش کوتاه بود (05/0>P)، اما تفاوت میزان مصرف ماده خشک این دو گروه با گروه‌های دریافت‌کنندة بلوک یا مش بلند معنی‌دار نبود. کاهش اندازة قطعات علوفه موجب افزایش گوارش‌پذیری خوراک شد هرچند، فشرده‌سازی خوراک تاثیر معنی‌داری بر این فراسنجه نداشت. میزان تولید روزانه شیرخام در گروه تغذیه شده با بلوک‌ کوتاه، حدود دو درصد بیش‌تر از سایر گروه‌ها بود (05/0>P)، اما اختلاف معنی‌داری بین گروه‌ها از لحاظ شیر تصحیح‌شده بر اساس چهار درصد چربی و یا شیر تصحیح ‌شده برای انرژی وجود نداشت. استفاده از بلوک موجب کاهش 21/2 درصدی در مقدار چربی شیر تولیدی شد (006/0=P). بلوک موجب افزایش مدت زمان خوردن و اندازة وعدة غذایی به ترتیب به مقدار 42/18 و 21/21 درصد، 41/16 درصد کاهش در تعداد وعده‌های غذایی و افزایش نرخ خوردن به اندازۀ 79/10 درصد شد (05/0p <). افزایش اندازة قطعات علوفه موجب افزایش زمان صرف‌شده برای مصرف خوراک در هر وعده غذایی و کاهش نرخ خوردن به ترتیب به میزان 55/25 و 00/20 درصد شد (05/0p <)، اما تاثیری بر تعداد و اندازة وعده‌های غذایی نداشت. فشرده‌سازی جیره کامل تاثیری بر زمان‌های صرف‌شده برای خوردن، نشخوار و کل زمان جویدن نداشت، اما افزایش اندازة قطعات علوفه موجب افزایش این فراسنجه‌ها شد (05/0>P).
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج مطالعه حاضر نشان داد که استفاده از بلوک خوراک کامل در تغذیة گاوهای شیرده هلشتاین به جای خوراک مش تفاوت قابل توجهی از لحاظ گوارش‌پذیری خوراک نداشت. هرچند تولید شیر تا حدودی افزایش و مقدار چربی شیر کاهش یافت. بلوک خوراک کامل سبب کاهش تعداد وعده‌های غذایی، افزایش مقدار خوراک مصرف شده در هر وعده غذایی و افزایش نرخ مصرف خوراک شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of physical form of feed and Hay Particle Size on Digestibility, Milk Yield and Nutritional Behavior of Holstein Lactating Cows

نویسندگان [English]

  • Cyrus ferasati 1
  • Fardin hozhabri 2
  • mohamad Mehdi Moeini 3
  • hasan fazaeli 4
1 Graduated Ph.D., Animal Science Department, Agriculture Faculty, Razi, University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Animal Science Department, Agriculture Faculty, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Animal science dept., agriculture faculty, Razi University
4 Animal Science Research Institute, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: In spite of the advantages of total mixed ration compared to the traditional diet, the problem of bulking the diet has not yet been resolved. Moving, storing and transporting of low density crop residues is one of the major problems in using them in feeding animals, especially sending it to distant areas. One of the suggested ways to overcome these problems is to compress this material into a high-density complete feed block. Complete feed block with respect to its distinctive characteristics can affect the milk yield and nutritional behavior of lactating cows and alter the eating behavior of the animal.
Changing the particle size of the fodder in complete feed block may also cause different performance – digestive responses in the animal.

Materials and methods: Eight Holstein lactating dairy cows (106±25.5 days in milk, 23.18±3.30 kg milk production and 492.66±38.15 kg body weight) were housed in individual pen randomly, and assigned to a 4×4 Latin square change-over design. Four experimental rations were: complete feed blocks containing forage with a geometric mean of 4.15 mm (long block) and 2.68 mm (short block), mesh complete feeds containing forage with a geometric mean of 4.15 mm (long mesh) and 2.68 mm (short mesh). The effect of two physical forms of the feed, including mixed feed in the form of block and mesh as well as the particle size of short or long on nutritional behavior, digestibility of feed and milk yield of Holstein lactating cows were investigated.

Results: Dry and organic matter intake in cows fed short CFBs were greater than cows fed short mash (P <0.05), but the difference between in dry matter intake of this two groups with other groups were not significant. The reduction in particle size of forage increased the digestibility of the feed (p < 0.05), however, feed compression had no significant effect on this parameter. Daily yield of raw milk in cows fed short CFBs were about two percent higher than cows fed on short mash (p < 0.05), but were not significant difference between groups concerning corrected milk based on four percent fat or milk adjusted for energy. The use of CFBs resulted in a decrease of 2.21% in daily production of milk fat (P = 0.006). Complete feed block increased the duration of eating and the meal size by 18.42 and 21.21 percent respectively, reduced the number of meals by 16.14 percent and increased the eating rate by 10.79% (P <0.05). Increasing the particle size of forage increased the duration of eating and decreased eating rate by 25.55% and 20.2%, respectively (p < 0.05), but did not affect the number and size of meals. Compression of complete diet had no effect on the time spent for eating, rumination and total chewing time, but increasing the particle size of forage increased these parameters (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that using the complete feed block in feeding of Holstein lactating cows compared to the complete feed of mash, had no significant differences in digestibility of diet. However, milk production increased and the amount of milk fat dropped. The complete feed block reduced the number of meals, increased feed intake per meal, and increased feed intake rate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • digestibility
  • forage particle size
  • Holstein cows nutritional behavior
  • physical form of feed
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