Aldai, N., Murray, B.E., Najera, A.I., Troy, D.J., and Osoro, K. 2005. Derivatization of fatty acids and its application for conjugated linoleic acid studies in ruminant meat lipids. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 85: 1073-1083.
Ansari, A., Taghizadeh, A., and anmohammadi, H. 2012. Effects of different levels of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on ruminal ecosystem and ciliate Protozoa population in Ghizel sheep. Journal of Animal Science. 22. (In Persian)
AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis, 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
Atkinson, R.L., Toone, C.D., Robinson, T.J., Harmon, D.L., and Ludden, P.A. 2010. Effects of ruminal protein degradability and frequency of supplementation on nitrogen retention, apparent digestibility, and nutrient fluxacross visceral tissues in lambs fed low-quality forage. Journal of Animal Science. 88: 727-736.
Azizi, M., Soltani, A., and Khavari Khorasani, S. 2008. Canola, Physiology, Agriculture, Breeding and Biotechnology. Mashhad University press. 204Pp. (In Persian)
Borhade, S.S. 2013. Chemical Composition and Characterization of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed oil and essential fatty acids by HPLC Method. Archives of Apply Science Research. 5(1): 5-8.
Broderick, G.A., and Kang, J. H. 1980. Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media. Journal of Dairy Science. 63: 64-75.
Broudisco, L.S., and Pochnet, S. 1994. Effect of linseed oil supplementation on feed degradation and microbial protein synthesis in the rumen of ciliate free and faunated sheep. Journal of Animal Feed Science and Technology. 49: 189-202.
Bull, L.S., Bush, L.J., Friend, J.D., Harris, B., and Jones, E.W. 1965. Incidence of ruminal parakeratosis in calves fed different rations and its relation to volatile fatty acid absorption. Journal of Dairy Science. 48: 1459–1466.
Callaway, J.C. 2004. Hemp seed as a nutritional resource: An overview: Euphytica. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kuopio, Finland. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands. 65-72.
Chen, X.B., and Gomes, M.J. 1995. Estimation of microbial protein supply to sheep and cattle based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives an over view of the technical details, Occasional Publication, Rowette Research Institute, Aberdeen, UK.
Chichlowski, M.W., Schroeder, J.W., Park, C.S., Keller, W.L., and Schimek, D.E. 2005. Altering the fatty acids in milk fat by including canola seed in dairy cattle diets. Journal of Dairy Science. 88 (9): 3084-3094
Cole, N.A., Defoor, P.J., Galyean, M.L., Duff, G.C., and Gleghorn, J.F. 2006. Effects of phase-feeding of crude protein on performance, carcass characteristics, serum urea nitrogen concentrations and manure nitrogen of finishing beef steers. Journal of Animal Science. 84: 3421-3432.
Czerkawski, J.W. 1966. The effect on digestion in the rumen of a gradual increase in the content of fatty acids in the diet of sheep. British Journal of Nutrition. 20: 833-842.
Daley, C.A., Abbott, A., Doyle, P.S., Nader, G.A., and Larson, S. 2010. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef. Journal of Nutrition. 9: 1–12.
Dayani, O., GHorbani, G., Alikhani, M., Rahmani, H.R., and Mir, P.S. 2007. Effect of dietary whole cottonseed and crud protein level on rumen protozoa population and fermentation parameters. Small Rumi. Research. 69: 36-45.
Dohme, F., Machmuller, A., Estermann, B.L., Pfister, P., Wasserfallen, A., and Kreuzer, M. 1999. The role of the rumen ciliate protozoa for methane suppression caused by coconut oil. Letters in applied Microbiology.
Duckett, S.K., and Gillis, M.H. 2010. Effects of oil source and fish oil addition on ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid formation in beef steers fed finishing diets. Journal of Animal Science. 88: 2684-2691.
Eadie, J.M. 1967. Studies on the ecology of certain rumen ciliate protozoa. J.ournal of General Microbiology. 49: 175.
Ebrahimi, R., Ahmadi, H.R., Zamiri, M.J., and Rowghani, E. 2007. Effect of energy and protein levels on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of Mehraban ram lambs. Pakistan Journal of Biology Science. 10: 1679-1684.
Forbs, J.M., and France, J. 2005. Quantitative aspects of ruminant digestion and metabolism. CABI. 725Pp.
Foroughi, O. 1996. The use of straw in processed oysters in the diet of lambs and determination of digestibility by in vivo and in vitro methods. Master's thesis. School of Agriculture. University of Tehran.
Fortenbery, T.R., and Bennett, M. 2004. Opportunities for commercial hemp production. Review: Agricultural Economics. 26(1): 97-117.
Ghoorchi T., and Asadi, Y. 2011. Optional consumption of feed and selection of rations in farm animals. Journal of Ruminant Research. 3(4): 1-17. (In Persion)
Gibb, D.J., Shah, M.A., Mir, P.S., and McAllister, T.A. 2005. Effect of full-fat hemp seed on performance and tissue fatty acids of feedlot cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 85(2): 223-230.
Gontheir, C., Mustafa, A.F., Berthiaume, R., Petit, H.V., Martineau, R., and Ouellet, D.R. 2004. Effect of feeding micronized and extruded flaxseed on ruminal fermentation and nutrition utilization by dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 87: 1854-1863.
Gonzalez, J., and Andres, S. 2003. Rumen degradability of some legume seeds. Journal of Animal Research 52: 17-25.
Grant, R., Anderson, B., Rasby, R., and Mader, T. 1997. Testing livestock feeds for beef cattle, dairy cattle, sheep and horses. University of Nebraska. Neb Guide Publication.
Haskins, B.R., Wise, M.B., Craig, H.B., Blumer, T.N., and Barrick, E.R. 1969. Effects of adding low levels of roughages or roughage substitutes to high energy rations for fattening steers. Journal of Animal Science. 29: 345–353.
Henderson, G., Stewart, C.S., and Nekrep, F.V. 1981. The effect of monensin on Pure mixed cultures of rumen bacteria. Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 51: 159-169.
Hessle, A., Eriksson, M., Nadeau, E., Turner, T., and Johansson, B. 2008. Cold-pressed hempseed cake as a protein feed for growing cattle. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A – Journal of Animal Science. 58(3): 136-145.
Hristovm, A.N., Vander Pol, M., Agle, M., Zaman, S., Schneider, C., Ndegwa, P., Vaddella, V.K., Johnson, K., Shingfield, K.J., and Karnati, S.K.R. 2009. Effect of lauric acid and coconutoil on ruminal fermentation, digestion, ammonia losses from manure, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 92: 5561–5582.
Huard, S., Petit, H.V., Seoane, J.R., and Rioux, R. 1998. Effects of mechanical treatment of whole canola seeds on performance, diet digestibility and rumen parameters of lambs fed grass silage. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 2: 592.
Ikwuegbu, O.A., and Sutton, J.D. 1982. The effect of varying amount of linseed oil supplementation on rumen metabolism in sheep. British Journal Nutrition. 48: 365-375.
Ivan, M., Hidiroglou, M., and Petit, H.V. 1991. Duodenal flow of nitrogen following protozoal inoculation of fauna-free sheep fed a diet supplemented with casein or soybean meal. Canadian J. Anim. Sci. 71: 793–801.
Ivan, M., Mir, P.S., Koenig, K.M., Rode, L.M., Neil, L., Entz, T., and Mir, Z. 2001. Effect of dietary sunflower seed oil on rumen protozoa population and tisse concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in sheep. Small Rumin Research. 41: 215-227.
Jenkins, T.C. 1993. Lipid metabolism in the rumen. Jouranal of Dairy Science. 76: 3851-3863.
Karamshahi, Kh., Dayani, O., Tahmasebi, R., and Khezri, A. 2014. The Effect of Nutrition of Alhagi with Waste Date Palm silage on Digestibility, Fermentation, Protozoal Population and Synthesis of Microbial Protein in Sheep. Iranian Journal of Animal Science. 45(3): 257-271. (In Persion)
Karus, M., and Vogt, D. 2004. European hemp industry: Cultivation, processing and product lines. Euphytica 140: 7-12.
Kim, S.C., Adesogan, A.T., Badinga, L., and Staples, C.R. 2007. Effects of dietary n6: n-3 fatty acid ratio on feed intake, digestibility, and fatty acid profiles of the ruminal contents, liver, and muscle of growing lambs. Journal of Animal Science. 85: 706-716.
Kocheki, A., Nasiri Mahalati, M., and Najafi, F. 2005. Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Iranian Cultivars. Iranian Journal of Crop Research. 2:2.208-216. (In Persion)
Koenig, K.M., Newbold, G.J., McIntoch, F., and Rode, L.M. 2000. Effect of protozoa on bacterial nitrogen raising in the rumen. Journal of Animal Science. 78: 2431-2445.
Koga, T. 1997. Linoleic and alpha Linolenice acids differently modify the effects of elaidic acid on polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and some immune indices in rats. Journal of British Nutrition. 77)4:( 645-656.
Krause, K.M., Combs, D.K., and beauchemin, K.A. 2002. Effects of forage particle size and grain fermentability in midlactation cows. II. Ruminal pH and chewing activity. Journal of Dairy Science. 85: 1947-1957.
Ladeira, M.M., Santarosa, L.C., Chizzotti, M.L., Ramos, E.M., Neto, O.R., Oliveira, D.M., and Ribeiro, J.S. 2014. Fatty acid profile, color and lipid oxidation of meat from young bulls fed ground soybean or rumen protected fat with or without monensin. Journal of Meat Science. 96: 597-605.
Leng, R.A., and Nolan, J.V. 1984. Nitrogen metabolism in rumen. Journal of Dairy Science. 67: 1072.
Machmullar, A, Ossowski. D.A., and Kreuzer, M. 2000. Comparative evalution effect of coconut oil, oilseed and digestion and energy balance on lamb. Journal of Animal feed Science and technology. 85: 41-60.
Machmullar, A., and Kreuzer, M. 1999. Methane suppression by coconut oil and associated effects on nutrient and energy balance in sheep. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 79:65-72.
Mahmoudi, M., Farhomaand, P., and Azarfar, A. 2012. Effects of different levels of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) on performance, internal organs weight and serum cholesterol levels in broiler chicks. Quarterly Journal of Medicinal Plants. 11: 121-129. (In Persian)
Majewska M.P., Miltko R., Bełżecki G., Skomiał J., and Kowalik B. 2017: Supplementation of rapeseed and linseed oils to sheep rations: effects on ruminal fermentation characteristics and protozoal populations. Czech Journal of Animal Science.
Manso, T., Castro, T. Mantecón, A.R., and Jimeno, V. 2006. Effects of palm oil and calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids in fattening diets on digestibility, performance and chemical body composition of lambs. Journal of Animal Feed Science and Technology. 127: 175-186.
McNaught, M.L., Owen, E.C., Henry, K.M., and Kon, S.K. 1954. The utilization of nonprotein nitrogen in bovine rumen. 8. The nutritive value of the proteins of preparations of daried rumen bacteria, rumen protozoa and brewer’s yeast for rats. Journal of Biochemical 56: 151-160.
Messana, J.D., Berchielli, T.T., Arcuri, P.B., Ribeiro1, A.F., Fiorentini, G., and Canesin. R.C. 2012. Effects of different lipid levels on protozoa population, microbial protein synthesis and rumen degradability in cattle. Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences. 34: 279-285.
Murphy, J.J., and Morgan, D.J. 1983. Effect of inclusion of protected and unprotected tallow in the supplement on the performance of lactating cows. Animal Production. 37: 203-210.
Mustafa, A.F., McKinnon, J.J., and Christensen, D.A. 1999. The nutritive value of hemp meal for ruminants. Canadian Journal of Animal Science.79: 91–95.
National Research Council. 2007. Nutrient Requirements of Sheep. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press.
Navid Shad, B., and A.R. Jaffari Sayadi. 2011. Animal nutrition. 7th ed. Haghshenass Press. 888 pp. (In Persian)
O’Fallon, J.V., Busboom, J.R., Nelson, M.L. and Gaskins, C.T. 2007. A direct method for fatty acid methyl ester synthesis: Application to wet meat tissues, oils, and feedstuffs. Journal of Animal Science. 85: 1511-1521.
Odani. S., and Odani, S. 1998. Isolation and primary structure of a methionine- and cystine-rich seed protein of Cannabis sativa. Bioscience, biotechnology and biochemistry. 62(4): 650-654.
Ogimoto, K., and Imai, S. 1981. Atlas of Rumen Microbiology. Japan Scientific Press, Tokyo, Japan.
Pashaei, S., Ghorchi, T., and Yamchi, A. 2014. Effect of edible sources containing unsaturated fatty acids on diets containing different levels of energy and crude protein on growth performance and blood parameters of lambs. Journal of Research in Ruminant. 2:4.103-120. (In Persian)
Paya, H., Taghizadeh, A., Janmohammadi, H., Moghadam, Gh.A., and Hoseinkhani, A. 2015. Protozoa population and microbial protein production in sheep fed with microwave safflower seed. Journal of Rumininant Research. 3: 27-39. (In Persian)
Petit, H.V., Tremblay, G., Etremblay, F., and Nadeau, P. 2002. Ruminal bio hydrogenation of fatty acids, protein degradability and dry matter digestibility of flaxseed treated with different sugar and heat combinations. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 82(2): 241-250.
Rennó1, F.P., de Freitas Júnior, J.E., Gandra, J.R., Filho, M.M., Verdurico, L.C., Rennó, L.N., Barletta, R.V., Vilela, F.G., and Bras, R. 2014. Effect of unsaturated fatty acid supplementation on digestion, metabolism and nutrient balance in dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation. Zootec. 4(4): 212-223.
Russell, J.B., O’Connor, J.D. Fox, D.G. Van Soest P.J., and Sniffen, C.J. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: I. Ruminal fermentation. Journal of Animal Science. 70: 3551–3561.
Salarinia, A., Fathi nasri, M.H., Farhanggar, H., and Naaeimipour yonesi, H. 2012. Effect of different levels of dietary fiber starting on feed intake, daily gain, feed efficiency and rumen parameters of Holstein dairy calves. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research. 4: 323-334. (In Persian)
Santra, A., Chaturvedi, O.H., Tripathi, M.K., Kumar R., and Karim, S.A. 2003. Effect of dietary sodium bicarbonate supplementation on fermentation characteristics and ciliate protozal population in rumen of lambs. Small Rumin Research. 47: 203-212.
SAS, 2005. SAS/STAT User’s Guide: Statistics. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC, USA.
Seng, M., Preston, T.R., Leng, R.A., and Meulen, U. 2001. Effect of a signal drench of cooking oil om rumen ecosystem and performance of young local yellow cattle fed rice straw cassava foliage. Livestock Research Rural Devel. 2: 4-13.
Shahverdi, A., Ghracherlo, M., and hoseini, S.A. 2009. Evaluation of properties of extracted oil from cannabis seeds. Food Science and Nutrition. 2: 52-60. (In Persian)
Sierra, V., Aldai, N., Castro, P., Osoro, K., Coto-Montes, A. and Oliván, M. 2008. Prediction of the fatty acid composition of beef by near infrared transmittance spectroscopy. Meat Science. 78: 248–255.
Silversides, F.G., and LefranÇois, M.R. 2005. The effect of feeding hemp seed meal to laying hens. British Poultry Science. 46: 231-235.
Sutton, J.D., Knight, R., McAllan, A.B., and Smith, R.H. 1983. Digestion and synthesis in the rumen of sheep given diets supplemented with free and protected oil. British Journal Nutrition. 49: 419-432.
Van Keulen, J., and Young, B.A. 1977. Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash as a natural marker in ruminant digestibility studies. Journal of Animal Science. 44:282–287.
Van Soest, P.J. 1994. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. 2nd edn. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, United States, 488Pp.
Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B., and Lewis, B.A. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science. 74: 3583-3597.
Varga, G.A., and Kolver, E.S. 1997. Microbial and animal limitations to fiber digestion and utilization. Journal of Nutrition. 127: 819-823.
Veira, D.M., Ivan, M., and Jui, P.Y. 1983. Rumen ciliate protozoa: effects on digestion in the stomach of sheep. Journal of Dairy Science. 66: 1015–1022.
Wang, X-S., Tang, C-H., Yang, X-Q., and Gao, W-R. 2008. Characterization, amino acid composition and in vitro digestibility of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) proteins. Food Chem.107: 11-18.
Williams, A.G. 1989. Metabolic activities of rumen protozoa. In Nolan, J.V., Leng, R.A., Demeyer, D.I., The roles of Protozoa and Fungi in ruminant digestion. Penambul books, Armidale, Australian. 97-126.
Wood, J.D., Richardson, R.I., Nute, G.R., Fisher, A.V., Campo, M.M. and Kasapidou, E. 2004. Effects of fatty acids on meat quality: A review. Meat Science. 66: 21–32.
Yu, P., Eng, A.R., Boon-ek, L., and Leury, B.J. 2002. Purine derivative excretion and ruminal microbial yield in growing lambs fed raw a dry roasted legume seeds as protein supplemented. Journal of Animal Feed Science and Technology. 95: 33-48.