اثرات تغذیه شاهدانه در جیره‌های با پروتئین خام متفاوت بر عملکرد، قابلیت هضم ، فراسنجه‌های شکمبه‌ای و سنتز پروتئین میکروبی در بره‌های پرواری بلوچی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجو

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه زابل

3 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

4 عضو هیات علمی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: دانه‏های روغنی حاوی مقادیر قابل توجهی چربی و اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع هستند و استفاده از این دانه‌ها در جیره، بر ترکیب اسیدهای چرب بافت‌های مختلف بدن و عملکرد حیوانات مزرعه‌ای تأثیر می‌گذارد. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی اثرات تغذیه دانه شاهدانه در جیره‏های با سطوح پایین پروتئین خام بر مصرف خوراک، عملکرد، قابلیت هضم مواد مغذی خوراک و در بره‌های پرواری بلوچی است. یکی دیگر از اهداف این تحقیق، با توجه به اثرات منفی اسیدهای چرب غیر اشباع موجود در چربی‌ها و دانه های روغنی بر پارامترهای شکمبه‌ای که سبب کاهش جمعیت پروتوزوآیی و بازچرخ نیتروژن شکمبه‌ای می‌گردد، آیا با استفاده از شاهدانه به عنوان یک دانه روغنی و تاثیر تغذیه آن بر فراسنجه‌های شکمبه ای و سنتز پروتئین میکروبی می‌توان پروتئین خام جیره را کاهش داد.
مواد وروش‌ها: در این پژوهش از 24 راس گوسفند بلوچی نر با 1±25 کیلوگرم وزن بدن و حدود 5 ماه سن در سه گروه در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی استفاده شد. جیره‎های آزمایشی شامل: 1) جیره شاهد با 14 درصد پروتئین خام، 2) جیره حاوی 10 درصد دانه شاهدانه با 14 درصد پروتئین خام و 3) جیره حاوی 10 درصد دانه شاهدانه با 12 درصد پروتئین خام بود. پرواربندی بره‏ها پس از طی کردن یک دوره سازگاری 14 روزه، به مدت 84 روز انجام شد. اندازه‌گیری مصرف خوراک، افزایش وزن روزانه، وزن سرد و گرم لاشه و قابلیت هضم ظاهری مواد مغذی با روش خاکستر نامحلول در اسید انجام شد. نمونه‌گیری ادرار جهت تعیین مشتقات پورینی از روش نمونه‌گیری نقطه‌ای استفاده شد. نمونه‌گیری از مایع شکمبه در آخرین روز هفته پایانی پرواربندی در ساعت قبل از مصرف خوراک و 3 ساعت بعد از خوراکدهی با استفاده از لوله مری متصل به پمپ خلاء انجام گردید. داده‌ها با رویه GLM با استفاده از نرم افزار آماری SAS آنالیز شدند.
یافته‌ها: جیره‌های حاوی شاهدانه بر ماده خشک مصرفی و میانگین افزایش وزن روزانه و وزن نهایی بره‌ها تاثیر معنی‌داری داشت. به طوری که بیشترین میزان مصرف ماده خشک و افزایش وزن مربوط به بره‌های تغذیه شده با شاهدانه با 14 درصد پروتئین خام بود. وزن نهایی در بره‌های تغذیه شده با شاهدانه با 14 و 12 درصد پروتیئن خام جیره، به ترتیب 11/46 و 03/43 کیلوگرم نسبت به گروه شاهد با وزن 42 کیلوگرم بیشتر بود. جیره‌های حاوی شاهدانه بر قابلیت هضم ظاهری ماده خشک و پروتئین خام بره‌ها تاثیر معنی‌داری داشت. غلظت نیتروژن آمونیاکی و جمعیت کل پروتوزآ و پروتوزوآ هولوتریش مایع شکمبه تحت تاثیر جیره‌های آزمایشی تفاوت معنی‌داری نشان داد. کمترین تعداد پروتوزوآ مژکدار و غلظت نیتروژن آمونیاکی مایع شکمبه در بره‌های تغذیه شده با شاهدانه مشاهده گردید. پروتئین میکروبی در بره‌های تغذیه شده با جیره‌های حاوی شاهدانه با 35 گرم در روز بیشتر از گروه شاهد با 31 گرم در روز بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به افزایش وزن روزانه، افزایش وزن نهایی و سنتز پروتئین میکروبی بیشتر بره‌های تغذیه شده با10 درصد شاهدانه و 14 درصد پروتئین خام بهترین عملکرد را نشان داد. از طرفی افزودن 10 درصد شاهدانه به جیره و کاهش 2 درصدی پروتئین خام جیره در مقایسه با گروه شاهد تاثیر منفی بر عملکرد رشد نداشت و با توجه به افزایش وزن روزانه و وزن نهایی گوسفندان تغذیه شده با 10 درصد شاهدانه و افزایش سنتز پروتئین میکروبی می‌توان از شاهدانه به‌عنوان یک منبع با ارزش غذایی بالا در تغذیه دام استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of feeding hemp seeds in diets with different levels of crude protein on Performance, Digestibility, Ruminal metabolites and Synthesis of Microbial Protein in Baluchi fattening lambs.

نویسندگان [English]

  • ghasem jalilvand 2
  • omid dayani 3
  • mehdi Dehghan banadaky 4
2 department of animal science of Zabol university
3 Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman
4 Department of Animal Sci. University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Oil seeds contain significant amounts of fat and fatty acids unsaturated, andBackground and objectives: Oil seeds contain significant amounts of fat and unsaturated fatty acids, and their use in the diet affects the composition of the fatty acids in various tissues of the body and animals' performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding hemp seed (HS) in diets with low levels of crude protein on feed intake, performance, nutrient digestibility on Baluchi fattening lambs and the possibility of CP reduction in the diets due toadverse effects of unsaturated fatty acids presence in HS on protozoal population and nitrogen recyclingin the rumen.
Materials and methods: Twenty-four Baluchi male lambs, with 24±1 kg body weight (BW) and 4–5 months of age, were used in a completely randomized design experiment. Experimental diets included: 1) control diet with 14% crude protein; 2) diet with 14% crude protein, containing 10% of HS and 3) diet with 12% crude protein containing 10% HS. The fattening period lasted 84 days after a 21-day adaptation period. Dry matter intake, daily body weight gain, cold and hot carcass weights and apparent digestibility were determined. Urine spot sampling was used to determine the purine derivatives. Rumen fluid samples were taken through esophagus-tube connected to vacuum pump before and three hours after morning feeding on the last day of experiment and then pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) were determined. Data were analyzed using GLM models of the SAS software.
Results: Diets containing HS had significant effect on dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and final weight of the lambs. The highest DMI and ADG were observed for lambs fed with آُ with 14% crude protein. The final weight in lambs fed with HS with 14 and 12% crude protein diet were 46.11 and 43.03 kg, respectively which was higher than control group with final weight 42 kg. Diets containing HS had significant effect on apparent digestibility of DM and CP by lambs (P <0.05). The concentration of ruminal NH3-N and total protozoa and Holotricha population were significantly affected by experimental diets. The lowest number of ciliate protozoa and the lowest ruminal NH3-N concentration were observed in lambs fed with HS. Microbial protein synthess in lambs fed with HS was higher than control group (35 vs. 31 g/d).
Conclusion: The result of this experiment showed that higher daily body weight, final weight and the microbial protein synthesis were achieved in animals which fed 10 and 14 percent HS. Including 10% of HS to the diet and reducing 2% of CP diet did not have any negative effect on growth performance than control group. In conclusion, based on the results of ADG and final BW and higher microbial protein synthesis including 10% HS as a valuable nutritive feed in the diet of animals is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • hemp seed
  • protozoa population
  • Baluchi sheep
  • apparent digestibility and ammonia nitrogen
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