عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objectives: Diarrhea is one of the most common diseases in young dairy calves. This disease results in economic loss on dairy farms. So, fighting this disease needs more researches. Addition of high fiber byproduct to calf starter diet may have beneficial effect on preventing calf diarrhea. Furthermore, plane of milk or milk replacer during weaning could impact calf health. We hypothesized that partially replacing corn grain with high-fiber byproducts (sugar beet pulp) would decrease the incidence and severity of common calf diseases, diarrhea and pneumonia. As two diseases often occur in dairy calves and decreases dry matter intake and average daily gain. In addition, their occurrences, usually needs medication, consequently increase farm costs. Hence, the purpose of this research was to examine the effect of substituting corn grain as a source of starch with sugar beet pulp as a high fiber feed in starter diet and high plane of milk replacer nutrition on health status Holstein calves during pre-weaning period.
Materials and methods: Forty-eight neonate calves (3-d old; 40.1 ± 0.84 kg BW) were assigned to four experimental groups, in a randomized completely design with 2 × 2 factorial arrangements. Experimental factors include two starter diets containing steam-flaked corn grain and sugar beet pulp and two plane of milk replacer nutrition including low plane (4 L milk) and high plane (8 L milk). So, the experimental groups including 1- calves received corn grain diet and low plane of milk replacer nutrition, 2- calves received corn grain diet and high plane of milk replacer nutrition, 3- calves received sugar beet pulp diet and low plane of milk replacer nutrition and 4- calves received sugar beet pulp diet and high plane of milk replacer nutrition. Calves rectum temperature was recorded daily and fecal score and general health signs were determined.
Results: The results showed that calves fed diet containing beet pulp in comparison to calves fed diet containing corn grain had lower chance to develop pneumonia, but higher to diarrhea. Increasing plane of milk replacer nutrition had no effect on developing diarrhea, but calves fed high plane of milk replacer nutrition in comparison to calves fed low plane of milk replacer nutrition had higher chance to develop pneumonia. General appearance (score ≥2) and frequency and duration of diarrhea and pneumonia were not different between experimental groups, but calves received sugar beet pulp diet and low plane of milk replacer nutrition in comparison to other experimental groups experienced fewer days to high rectal temperature.
Conclusion: It is concluded that calves fed diet containing beet pulp due to higher diarrhea occurrence and duration, greater medical cost for pneumonia and less general appearance, had lower performance in comparison to calves fed diet containing corn grain. Milk replacer plane of nutrition had no effect on diarrhea.