فراتحلیل: تأثیر افزودن مکمل کتان بر عملکرد و ترکیب اسید‌های چرب بافت چربی زیر جلدی و عضله لانگ ایسموس بره‌های پرواری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه علوم‌دامی، مجتمع آموزش‌ عالی کشاورزی و دامپروری تربت‌جام

2 عضو هیات علمی مجتمع آموزش عالی تربت جام

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: مطالعات نشان می‌دهد که افزودن دانه‌های روغنی به خوراک نشخوارکنندگان می‌تواتد ترکیب اسیدهای چرب در محصولات دامی را تحت تأثیر قرار دهد. بیش از 70 درصد روغن کتان از اسیدهای چرب غیر اشباع تشکیل شده که در این میان 50 درصد آن اسید آلفا لینولنیک است با این حال، بازده انتقال اسید آلفا لینولنیک به دئودنوم، وابسته به مقدار اسید آلفا لینولنیکی است که بتواند در مقابل فرآیند بیوهیدروژناسیون شکمبه محافظت شود. اکستروده کردن دانه‌های کتان باعث می‌شود اسیدهای چرب غیر اشباع در مقابل فرآیند بیوهیدروژناسیون شکمبه محافظت شوند، اما نتایج به‌دست آمده از تأثیر اکستروده کردن بر قابلیت تجزیه دانه‌ کتان در شکمبه نیز، با یکدیگر هم‌خوانی ندارد. ترکیب نتایج حاصل از مطالعات انجام ‌شده در رابطه با افزودن مکمل کتان به خوراک بره‌های پرواری به‌صورت فراتحلیل، امکان دستیابی به برآورد دقیق و معتبرتری را فراهم می‌سازد.

مواد و روش‌ها: پس از جستجو و جمع‌آوری مقالات، در نهایت 12 مقاله مناسب به‌منظور ورود به مرحله فراتحلیل انتخاب شد و داده‌های مورد نیاز در رابطه با فراسنجه‌های غلظت اسیدهای چرب امگا 3، امگا 6، اسید لینولئیک کونژوگه در بافت عضلانی و چربی، میانگین افزایش وزن روزانه، مصرف خوراک و وزن لاشه تازه استخراج و خلاصه گردید. جهت انجام فراتحلیل از نرم‌افزار Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) نسخه 3 استفاده شد. با توجه به ماهیت پیوسته داده‌ها از تفاوت میانگین استاندارد شده و شاخص Hedges’s g برای محاسبه اندازه اثر استفاده شد. از هر دو مدل اثرات ثابت و تصادفی برای ترکیب اندازه اثر استفاده شد. برای بررسی میزان سوگیری انتشار از نمودار قیفی و آزمون‌های آماری استفاده شد. نتایج به‌صورت نمودار درختی در برگیرنده اطلاعات اصلی شامل اندازه اثر، خطای استاندارد و فاصاله اطمینان 95 درصد به‌صورت کلی و نیز به تفکیک نوع مکمل استفاده شده در هر مطالعه ارائه شد.

یافته‌ها: تأثیر افزودن مکمل کتان بر میانگین افزایش وزن روزانه (3/0+ و 05/0P˂) و وزن لاشه تازه (05/0+ و 01/0P˂) مثبت بود. افزودن مکمل کتان تأثیر معنی‌داری بر مصرف خوراک نداشت. قرار گرفتن مقدار I2 برای اندازه اثر میانگین افزایش وزن روزانه و وزن لاشه تازه بین 50 تا 75 درصد نشان‌دهنده وجود ناهمگنی متوسط بود. افزودن مکمل کتان بر مقدار اسیدهای چرب امگا 3 و امگا 6 در بافت چربی زیر جلدی و عضله لانگ ایسموس به‌ترتیب تأثیر مثبت (3/1+ و 01/0P˂) و منفی (75/0- و 01/0P˂) داشت. افزودن مکمل کتان تأثیر معنی‌داری بر مقدار اسید لینولئیک کونژوگه بافت چربی زیر جلدی و عضله لانگ ایسموس نداشت . مقایسه اندازه اثر هر یک از مکمل‌ها با اندازه اثر کلی برای مقدار اسیدهای چرب امگا 3 (3/1+) و امگا 6 (75/0-) نشان داد که افزودن روغن کتان بیشترین تأثیر را به‌ترتیب برای مقدار اسیدهای چرب امگا 3، 9/1+ و امگا 6، 87/1- بافت چربی زیر جلدی و عضله لانگ ایسموس داشت. مقادیر I2 برای اندازه اثر مقدار اسیدهای چرب امگا 3 و امگا 6 به‌ترتیب حاکی از وجود ناهمگنی کم و بالا بود.

نتیجه‌گیری: افزودن مکمل کتان در جیره بره‌های پرواری، افزایش میانگین وزن روزانه، افزایش وزن لاشه تازه و افزایش مقدار اسیدهای چرب امگا 3 در بافت چربی زیر جلدی و عضله لانگ ایسموس را به دنبال دارد. در عین حال استفاده از مکمل کتان می‌تواند مقدار اسیدهای چرب امگا 6 در بافت چربی زیر جلدی و عضله لانگ ایسموس را کاهش دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of linseed supplementation on performance and concentration of fatty acids in subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus thoracis muscle in fattening lambs: A Meta-Analysis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elias Ibrahimi Khoram Abadi 1
  • Mohsen Kazemi 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Sciences, Higher Education Complex of Torbat-e Jam, Torbat-e Jam, Iran
2 Assistant professor, Department of Animal Science, Higher Education Complex of Torbat-e Jam, Torbat-e Jam, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Studies have shown that the addition of oilseeds to ruminants diets can affect the fatty acid composition of livestock products. linseed oil contains more than 70% poly unsaturated fatty acids with alpha-linolenic acid generally contributing over 50% of total fatty acids. Hence, protection against rumen biohydrogenation determine the amount of alpha-linolenic acid reach to the duodenum. The extrusion of linseed may protect unsaturated fatty acids against ruminal biohydrogenation. However, the effects of extrusion on ruminal degradability of linseed are inconsistent in the literature. meta-analysis can combine the results of studies about linseed supplementation to the fattening lamb diets for accurate and reliable estimation.

Materials and methods: A literature search was initially conducted using PubMed, Medline, Science Direct, and Google Scholar data bases and investigated references in the papers. It was also based on the following key words: fatty acid, linseed supplementation, linseed oil, growth performance, and fattening lamb. Then 12 studies were included in this meta-analysis; and prepared comparisons for average daily gain, feed intake and hot carcass weight and concentration of n3, n6 and conjugated linoleic acid fatty acids in subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus thoracis muscle. Meta-analyses were carried out using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis package, version 3. The effect sizes of across studies were calculated with fixed and random effect models. The presence of true heterogeneity among studies was identified with Cochran’s Q–tests and quantification of the degree of heterogeneity was done with the I2 index. Possible publication bias was evaluated with funnel plot and statistical tests.

Results: The results of this meta-analysis showed that the addition of linseed in the diet, has a positive effects on average daily body weight gain and hot carcass weight. However, linseed supplementation had no significant effects feed intake. Addition of linseed in the diet increase n3 fatty acids content and decrease n6 fatty acids concentration in subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus thoracis muscle, respectively. Subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus thoracis muscle conjugated linoleic acid concentration were not influenced by linseed supplementation. Comparison of the effect size of type of supplements to the overall effect size for the amount of n3 and n6 fatty acids in subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus thoracis muscle showed that the addition of flaxseed oil had the most effect on the concentration of this fatty acids.

Conclusion: The results indicate that feeding linseed increase growth parameters such as lambs average daily body weight gain, hot carcass weight and n3 fatty acids content in subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus thoracis muscle in fattening lambs. Nevertheless, adding linseed to diets reduced n6 fatty acids content in subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus thoracis muscle of lamb.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • fatty acid
  • Fattening lamb
  • Linseed
  • meta-analysis
  • Performance
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