Adin, G., Gelman, A., Solomon, R., Flamenbaum, I., Nikbachat, M., Yosef, E., Zenou, A., Shamay, A., Feuermann, Y., Mabjeesh, S.J. and Miron, J. 2009. Effects of cooling dry cows under heat load conditions on mammary gland enzymatic activity, intake of food water, and performance during the dry period and after parturition. Livest. Sci. 124: 189–195.
Aggarwal, A. and Upadhyay, R. 2013.Heat Stress and Immune Function. In: Heat Stress and Animal Productivity. 1st Edition. Springer Publication, London, UK. Pp: 113-136.
Allen, M.S. and Bradford, B.J. 2009. Control of eating by hepatic oxidation of fatty acids. A note of caution. J. Appetite. 53: 272-273.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 2007. Official methods of analysis. 18th Edition. AOAC, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
Bernabucci, U., Basirico, L., Morera, P., Dipasquale, D., Vitali, A., Piccioli Cappelli, F. and Calamari, L. 2015. Effect of summer season on milk protein fractions in Holstein cows. J. Dairy. Sci. 98: 1815–1827.
Campbell, M.H., Miller, J.K. and Schrick, F.N. 1999. Effect of additional cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc on reproduction and milk yield of lactating dairy cows receiving bovine somatotropin. J. Dairy. Sci. 82: 1019–1025.
Capuco, A.V., Akers, R.M. and Smith, J.J. 1997. Mammary growth in Holstein cows during the dry period: quantification of nucleic acids and histology. J. Dairy. Sci. 80: 477–487.
Cerone, S.I., Sansinanea, A.S., Streitenberger, S.A., Garcia M.C. and Auza. N.J. 1998. The effect of copper deficiency on the peripheral blood cells of cattle. Vet. Res. Commun. 22: 47-57.
Chase, C.R., Beede, D.K., Van Horn, H.H., Shearer, J.K., Wilcox, C.J. and Donovan,G.A. 2000. Responses of lactating dairy cows to copper source, supplementation rate, and dietary antagonist (Iron). J. Dairy. Sci. 83: 1845–1852.
Collier, R.J., Doelger, S.G., Head, H.H., Thatcher, W.W. and Wilcox, C.J. 1982. Effects of heat stress during pregnancy on maternalhormone concentrations, calf birth weight and postpartum milk yield of Holstein cows. J. Anim. Sci. 54: 309–319.
Cusack, P.M.V., McMeniman, N.P. and Lean, I.J. 2005. The physiological and production effects of increased dietary intake of vitamins E and C in feedlot cattle challenged with bovine herpesvirus. J. Anim. Sci. 83: 2423-2433.
Du Preez, J.H., Giesecke, W.H. and Hattingh, P.J. 1990. Heat stress in dairy cattle and other livestock under Southern African conditions. Temperature-humidity index mean values during the four main seasons. J. Vet. Res. 57: 77-86.
Engle, T.E., Spears, J.W., Xi, L. and Edents, F.W. 2000. Dietary copper effects on lipid metabolism and circulating catecholamine concenteration in finishing steers. J. Anim. Sci. 78: 2737- 2744.
Engle, T.E., Fellner, V. and Spears, J.W. 2001. Copper status, serum cholesterol and milk fatty acide profile in Holestein cows fed varying concenteration of copper. J. Dairy. Sci. 84: 2308- 2313.
Erb, C., Staudt, N., Flammer, J. and Nau, W. 2004. Ascorbic acid as a free radical scavenger in porcine and bovine aqueous humour. Ophtalmic. Res. 36: 38-42.
Gao, S.T., Guo, J., Quan, S.Y., Nan, X.M., Fernandez, M.V.S., Baumgard, L.H. and Bu, D.P. 2017. The effects of heat stress on protein metabolism in lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy. Sci. 100: 5040–5049.
Garcı´a-Ispierto, I., Lo´pez-Gatius, F., Bech-Sabat, G., Santolaria, P., Ya´niz, J.L., Nogareda, C., De Rensis, F., and Lo´pez-Be´jar, M. 2007. Climate factors affecting conception rate of high producing dairy cows in northeastern Spain. Theriogen. 67: 1379–1385.
Grummer, R.R., Mashek, D.G., and Hayirli, A. 2004. Dry matter intake and energy balance in the transition period.Vet. Clin. J. Food. Anim. 20: 447–470.
Haslett, C., Savill, S. and Meagher, L. 1989. The neutrophil. Curr. J. Opin. Immun. 2: 10-18.
Hayirli, A., Grummer, R.R., Nordheim, E.V. and Crump, P.M. 2002. Animal and dietary factors affecting feed intake during the prefresh transition period in Holsteins. J. Dairy. Sci. 85: 3430–3443.
Heck, J.M.L., van Valenberg, H.J.F., Dijkstra, J. and van Hooijdonk, A.C.M. 2009. Seasonal variation in the Dutch bovine raw milk composition. J. Dairy. Sci. 92: 4745–4755.
Machado, V.S., Oikonomou, G., Lima, S.F., Bicalhoa, M.L.S., Kacar, C., Foditsch, C., Felippeb, M.J., Gilbert, R.O. and Bicalho. R.C. 2014. The effects of injectable trace minerals (selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese) on peripheral blood leukocyte activity and serum superoxide dismutase activity of lactating Holstein cows. Vet. J. 200: 299–304.
Matsui, T. 2012. Vitamin C nutrition in cattle. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 25: 597 - 605.
Muehlenbein, E.L., Brink, D.R., Deutscher, G.H., Carlson, M.P. and Johnson, A.B. 2001. Effect of inorganic and organic copper supplemented to first- calf cows on cow reproduction and calf health and performance. J. Anim. Sci. 79: 1650-1659.
National Research Council. 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th Revised Edition, National Academy of Sciences. Washington, D.C. 381 Pp.
Rejeb, M., Raoudha, S. and Najar. T. 2016. Role of vitamin C on immune function under heat stress Condition in dairy cows. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 11: 717-724.
Roche, J.R., Friggens, N.C., Kay, J.K., Fisher, M.W., Stafford K.J. and Berry, D.P. 2009. Invited review: Body condition score and its association with dairy cow productivity, health, and welfare. J. Dairy. Sci. 92: 5769–5801.
Roche, J.R., Kay, J.K., Friggens, N.C., Loor, J.J. and Berry, D.P. 2013. Assessing and managing body condition score for the prevention of metabolic disease in dairy cows. J. Vet. Clin. Food Anim. Pract. 29: 323–336.
Scaletti, R.W. and Harmon, R.J. 2012. Effect of dietary copper source on response to coliform mastitis in dairy cows. J. Dairy. Sci. 95: 654-662.
Sharma, M.C., Joshi, C. and Gunjan. D. 2008. Therapeutic management of copper deficiency in buffalo heifers: Impact on immune function. J. Vet. Res. Commun. 32: 49–63.
Solaiman, S.G., Maloney, M.A., Qureshi, M.A., Davis, G. and Andrea, G.D. 2001. Effect of high copper supplements on performance, health, plasma copper and Enzyme in goats. Small Rum. Res. 41: 127-139.
Spears, J.W., Kegley, E.B., and Mullis, L.A. 2004. Bioavailability of copper from tribasic copper and copper sulfate in growing cattle. J. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol. 116: 1-13.
Suttle, N.F. 2010. Mineral Nutrition of Livestock. 4th Edition. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Cambridge, UK. 579 Pp.
Tan, X.Y., Luo, Z., Liu, X. and Xie, C.X. 2011. Dietary copper (Cu) requirement for juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Aquac. Nut. 17: 170–176.
Tao, S., Thompson, I.M., Monteiro, A.P.A., Hayen, M.J., Young L.J. and Dahl, G.E. 2012. Effect of cooling heat-stressed dairy cows during the dry period on insulin response. J. Dairy. Sci. 95: 5035–5046.
Van Saun, R.J. 2016. Indicators of dairy cow transition risks: Metabolic profiling revisited. Tiera. Prax. Ausg. Gross. Nutz. 44: 118-126.
Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B. and Lewis, B.A. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy. Sci. 74: 3593-3597.
Wankhade, P.R., Manimaran, A., Kumaresan, A., Jeyakumar, S., Ramesha, K.P., Sejian, V., Rajendran, D., and Varghese, M.R. 2017. Metabolic and immunological changes in transition dairy cows: A review : Vet. World. 10: 1367-1377.
Ward, J.D., Spears, J.W. and Kegley, E.B. 1996. Bioavailability of copper proteinate and copper carbonate relative to copper sulfate in cattle. J. Dairy. Sci. 79: 127- 132.
Weiss, W.P. 2001. Effeect of dietary vitamin C on concenteration of ascorbic acid in plasma and milk. J. Dairy. Sci. 84: 2302- 2307.
Weiss, W.P. and Hogan, J.S. 2007. Effects of dietary vitamin C on neutrophil function and responses to intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide in periparturient dairy cows. J. Dairy. Sci. 90: 731–739.
West, J.W. 2003. Effects of heat-stress on production in dairy cattle. J. Dairy. Sci. 86: 2131–2144.
Wolf, G. 1993. Uptake of ascorbic acid by human neutrophils. Nutr. Rev. 51: 337-338.
Yang, Z.B., Yang, W.R., Zhang, S.Z., Li, Z.Y. and Zhao, H. 2007. Effect of copper and zinc on blood and milk parameters and performance of dairy cows. J. Anim. Feed. Sci. 16: 571–575.