اثر تزریق ویتامین C و مس بر تولید و ترکیب شیر و نمره وضعیت بدنی گاوهای دوره انتقال تحت تنش حرارتی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم دامی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایران.

2 مدیر گروه علوم دامی دانشگاه ایلام

3 استادیار بخش تحقیقات علوم دامی، مرکزتحقیقات وآموزش کشاورزی ومنابع طبیعی استان ایلام، سازمان تحقیقات،آموزش وترویج کشاورزی، ایران

4 گروه علوم دامی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: دوره انتقال به سه هفته قبل تا سه هفته بعداز زایش گفته می‌شود و یک مرحله فیزیولوژیکی پرتنش در گاوهای شیری می‌باشد. کاهش مصرف خوراک و تعادل منفی انرژی به طور بالقوه باعث تضعیف سیستم ایمنی و افزایش بروز ناهنجاری‌های متابولیکی و بیماری‌های عفونی مانند ورم پستان در گاوهای دوره انتقال می‌شود. دمای بالای هوا در فصل تابستان احتمال بروز تنش حرارتی را افزایش می‌دهد که با کاهش مصرف خوراک و تغییر در واکنش‌های متابولیکی باعث کاهش تولید شیر در گاوهای شیری همراه است. استفاده از برخی ویتامین‌ها و مواد معدنی می‌تواند به کاهش آثار منفی دوره انتقال و تنش حرارتی در گاوهای شیری کمک کند. از جمله این مواد مغذی می‌توان مس و ویتامین C را نام برد. لذا هدف از این آزمایش بررسی اثر تزریق ویتامین C و مس بر تولید و ترکیب شیر، نمره وضعیت بدنی، مصرف ماده خشک و سلول‌های خونی گاوهای دوره انتقال در فصل تابستان بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: در این پژوهش از 20 رأس گاو هلشتاین شکم دوم (میانگین وزن 51 ± 18/603 کیلوگرم) و 20 رأس گاو شکم سوم و بالاتر (میانگین وزن 53 ± 05/669 کیلوگرم) در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی و به صورت فاکتوریل 2×2 انجام شد. زمان آزمایش از 40 روز قبل از زمان مورد انتظار زایش تا 90 روز پس از زایش بود. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل شاهد (تزریق 7 میلی‌لیتر سرم فیزیولوژیک 9/0 درصد)، ویتامین C (تزریق 25 میلی‌گرم محلول ویتامین C به ازای هرکیلوگرم وزن زنده)، مس (تزریق 75 میلی‌گرم مس برای هر رأس در روز) و مس- ویتامین C ( تزریق همزمان 25 میلی‌گرم ویتامین C به ازای هر کیلوگرم وزن زنده و 75 میلی‌گرم مس برای هر رأس در روز) بودند. تزریق محلول‌ها در روزهای 40 و 20 قبل از زمان مورد انتظار زایش، روز زایش و 20 روز پس از زایش انجام شد. حداکثر شاخص حرارت – رطوبت در زمان اجرای آزمایش دارای دامنه‌ای از 27/68 تا 20/78 بود. تغییرات نمره وضعیت بدنی، مصرف ماده خشک در روز زایش، تولید و ترکیب شیر و شمارش سلول‌های خونی بررسی شد.
یافته‌ها: نمره وضعیت بدنی، مصرف ماده خشک در روز زایش، تولید و ترکیب شیر در روزهای 7، 30، 60 و 90 پس از زایش و شمارش تفریقی سلول‌های خونی به غیر از نوتروفیل‌ها تحت تأثیر تزریق همزمان ویتامین C و مس قرار نگرفت. تعداد نوتروفیل‌ها در روز 20 قبل از زایش تحت تاثیر تزریق ویتامین C قرار نگرفت. در صورتی که تزریق ویتامین C باعث افزایش تعداد نوتروفیل‌های خون گاوها در روز زایش و روز 10، 20 و 30 پس از زایش شد (05/0p <). تزریق محلول مس در مقایسه با عدم تزریق آن باعث تمایل به تغییرات کمتری در نمره وضعیت بدنی گاوها از روز زایش تا 30 روز پس از آن شد (06/0= P). تعداد سلول‌های قرمز خون در روز زایش در گاوهای دریافت کننده محلول تزریقی مس در مقایسه با عدم دریافت آن بالاتر بود (05/0p <).
نتیجه‌گیری کلی: به طور کلی، اگر چه تزریق جداگانه مس و ویتامین C باعث تغییراتی در تعداد برخی از سلول‌های خونی گاوها شد اما تزریق همزمان ویتامین C و مس در گاوهای دوره انتقال تحت تنش حرارتی بر تولید و ترکیب شیر آنها در 90 روز اول دوره شیردهی اثر قابل توجهی نداشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of injection of vitamin C and copper on milk production and composition, and body condition score of transition dairy cows under heat stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sharif Khodamoradi 1
  • Farshid Fatahnia 2
  • Hoshang Jafari 3
  • Golnaz Taasoli 4
1 Department of Animal Science, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran.
2 Faculty member, Ilam University
3 Assistant Prof. Animal Science Research Department, Ilam Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ilam, Iran
4 Department of Animal Science, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Transition period is the period between 3 weeks before and 3 weeks after parturition which is one of the most critical physiological stage in dairy cows. Decreasing dry matter intake (DMI) and negative energy balance (NEB) potentially weakens immunity system and increases higher incidence of metabolic and infectious diseases such mastitis. High temperature in summer results in heat stress which subsequently reduce DMI and changes metabolic reaction in lactating dairy cows. Consumption of some vitamins and minerals could reduce negative effects of transition period and heat stress such as vitamin C and copper. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of injection of vitamin C and copper to transition dairy cows on milk production and composition and body condition score (BCS), DMI in calving day and blood cells in summer season.
Materials and methods: In this experiment twenty multiparous (second parity, with 603.18 ± 51 kg average body weight) and twenty multiparous (third and fourth parity, 669.05 ± 53 kg average body weight) Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized block design with 2*2 factorial arrangement. Experiment extended from 40 d before expected calving till 90 d after calving. Experimental treatments consisted of control (injection of 7 ml of NaCl % 0.9), Vitamin C (injection of 25 mg vitamin C solution/kg body weight), Copper (injection of 75 mg copper solution/day) and Vitamin C-Copper (simultaneous injection of 25 mg vitamin C solution/ kg body weight and 75 mg copper solution/day). Solutions were injected on 20 and 40 d before expected calving, calving day and 20 d after calving. Maximum temperature-humidity index during the experiment was between 68.27 to 78.20. Body condition score (BCS) changes, DMI in calving day, milk production and composition and blood cells were evaluated.
Results: Results showed that BCS, DMI in calving day, milk production and composition on d 7, 30, 60 and 90 after calving and cell blood count except of neutrophil count were not influenced by simultaneous injection of vitamin C and copper solutions. Blood neutrophil count on d 20 before expected calving did not affected by injection of vitamin C while as vitamin C injection enhanced blood neutrophil count on calving day, 10, 20 and 30 d after calving (p < 0.05). Copper solution injection in compare to lack of injection tended to less changes on BCS form calving day till 30 d after calving (P=0.06). Red blood cell counts on calving day in cows receiving copper solution injection were greater in compare to lack of injection (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Although, individual injection of vitamin C and copper to transition dairy cows resulted in some changes in blood cell counts but simultaneous injection of vitamin C and copper to heat loaded transition dairy cows had no considerable effect on milk composition and production of the first 90 d calving.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Copper
  • Dairy cow
  • Milk composition and production
  • Transition period
  • Vitamin C
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