اثر جایگزینی کنجاله سویا با دانه سویای خام، اکسترود شده و برشته‌شده بر عملکرد پروار، فراسنجه‌های تخمیر شکمبه‌ای، قابلیت هضم ظاهری و رفتار تغذیه‌ای در بره‌های نر افشاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم دامی دانشگاه تبریز

2 استاد گروه علوم دامی دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

چکیده
سابقه و هدف: دانه های روغنی به منظور تامین همزمان انرژی و پروتئین در تغذیه نشخوارکنندگان استفاده می‌شوند. برای از بین بردن مواد ضدتغذیه‌ای و افزایش پروتئین عبوری، بایستی دانه‌های روغنی فرآوری ‌شوند و استفاده از حرارت، رایج‌ترین روش فرآوری دانه سویاست. هدف اصلی از اجرای این پژوهش بررسی تاثیر جایگزینی دانه سویای خام، اکسترود شده و برشته شده با کنجاله سویا بر عملکرد پروار، فراسنجه‌های شکمبه‌ای، قابلیت هضم ظاهری و رفتار تغذیه‌ای در بره‌های نر افشاری بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: چهل و دو راس بره نر نژاد افشاری 3 الی 4 ماهه با وزن اولیه 2±30 کیلوگرم در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با 7 تیمار و هر تیمار با 6 تکرار، بمدت 74 روز شامل 14 روز دوره عادت‌دهی و 60 روز دوره نمونه‌گیری استفاده شد. جیره‌های غذایی با مقادیر انرژی و پروتئین یکسان و نسبت علوفه به کنسانتره 30 به 70 تنظیم شدند. تیمارهای آزمایشی به ترتیب شامل: تیمار 1: جیره پایه حاوی 15 درصد کنجاله سویا، تیمار 2: جایگزینی 5/7 درصد از کنجاله سویا با سویای خام در جیره پایه، تیمار 3: جایگزینی تمام کنجاله سویا با سویای خام، تیمار 4: جایگزینی 5/7 درصد از کنجاله سویا با سویای اکسترود شده، تیمار5 : جایگزینی تمام کنجاله سویا با سویای اکسترود شده، تیمار 6 : جایگزینی 5/7 درصد از کنجاله سویا با سویای برشته شده، تیمار7 : جایگزینی تمام کنجاله سویا با سویای برشته شده بود. خوراک مصرفی بصورت روزانه و وزن بره‌ها هر هفته یک‌بار تا سن کشتار اندازه‌گیری شد.
یافته‌ها: بر اساس نتایج پژوهش، ماده خشک مصرفی تحت تاثیر جیره‌های آزمایشی قرار گرفت (01/0P<)، به طوری که جیره حاوی 15 درصد سویای برشته شده با میانگین 799/1 کیلوگرم در روز بیشترین ماده خشک مصرفی را نشان داد. جیره‌های غذایی تاثیر معنی‌داری بر افزایش وزن روزانه داشتند (05/0P<). استفاده از 5/7 درصد دانه سویای اکسترود شده و 15 درصد دانه سویای برشته شده باعث افزایش وزن روزانه نسبت به جیره حاوی 15 درصد کنجاله سویا و 15 درصد سویای خام گردید (05/0P<). استفاده از دانه سویای اکسترود شده و برشته شده در تمام سطوح نسبت به کنجاله سویا و دانه سویای خام ضریب تبدیل غذایی را کاهش داد (01/0P<). تاثیر جیره‌های آزمایشی بر قابلیت هضم دیواره سلولی بدون همی سلولز معنی‌دار بود (05/0P<) اما بر قابلیت هضم ماده‌ی خشک، پروتئین خام و ماده‌ی آلی معنی‌دار نبود. غلظت مولی اسیدهای چرب فرار شکمبه و رفتار تغذیه‌ای بره‌ها تحت تاثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی قرار نگرفت.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که استفاده از دانه سویای اکسترود شده و برشته شده با بهبود افزایش وزن روزانه، کاهش ضریب تبدیل غذایی و افزایش قابلیت هضم مواد مغذی موجب افزایش عملکرد بره‌های افشاری گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of replacement Soybean meal with crud, extruded and roasted full-fat soybean on fattening performance, rumen parameters, apparent digestibility and feeding behaviors in Afshari male lambs

نویسندگان [English]

  • davoud aliyari 1
  • akbar Taghizade 1
  • hamid amanlou 2
  • ali hosseinkhani 1
  • hamid mohamadzade 1
1 Dept of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz University of, Iran
2 Dept. of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University of, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and objectives: Oil seeds are commonly used in the diet of Ruminant nutrition to meet energy and protein requirements. To eliminate the anti-nutritional substances and increasing bypass protein, soybean seeds are processed, and heat is the most common way used to processing soybeans. So using bypass proteins is important, Soybean processing causes rumen un-degradable protein content to be increased, that could increase protein absorption in the small intestine and improve nitrogen utilization efficiency. The main objectives of this research were the estimate the effect of dietary replacement of crud, extruded and rousted full-fat soybean with soybean meal on dry matter intake, growth performance, rumen parameters, diet digestibility and feeding behaviors in Afshari male lambs.
Materials and methods: Experimental diets were assigned to the 7 groups (n = 6/group) in a completely randomized design for a 74-d period (14 d for adaptation and 60 d for data collection). Experimental diets with equal ME and CP concentrations and a forage to-concentrate ratio of 30 to 70 were formulated: Treatment 1: contains 15 percent of soybean meal, treatment 2: Replace of 7.5 percent soybean meal with crud full fat soybean, Treatment 3: Replace of all soybean meal with crud full fat soybean, treatment 4: Replace of 7.5 percent of soybean meal with extruded full fat soybean, Treatment 5: Replace of all soybean meal with extruded full fat soybean, Treatment 6: Replace of 7.5 percent soybean meal with roasted full fat soybean, Treatment 7: Replace of all soybean meal with roasted full fat soybean.
Results: Dry matter intakes was effected by experimental diets (P <0.01). Using 15% rousted full fat soybean with the mean of 1.79 kg per day showed the highest dry matter intake. The use of extruded and rousted full fat soybean significantly increased daily gain in comparison with the crud full fat soybean and soybean meal (P <0.05). The use of extruded and rousted full fat soybean significantly reduced feed conversion ratio (P <0.01). In vivo digestibility of crud protein, dry matter and organic matter was not affected by the dietary treatment but neutral detergent fiber was affected by the dietary treatment (P <0.05). Feeding lambs on diets crud, extruded and rousted instead of soybean meal had no effect on volatile fatty acids and feeding behaviors.
Conclusion: The use of extruded and roasted full-fat soybean with improved daily gain, in vivo digestibility and reduce feed conversion ratio, increased the fattening performance of Afshari male lamb.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soybean meal
  • full-fat soybean
  • fattening performance
  • Afshari Lambs
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