تاثیر مصرف پودر و عصاره ریشه رازیانه برعملکرد بره‌های پرواری مهربان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استاد موسسه تحقیقات علوم دامی

چکیده

چکیده :
سابقه و هدف: رازیانه از جمله افزودنی‌های گیاهی است که به‌عنوان جایگزین آنتی‌بیوتیک‌های محرک رشد، در پرورش دام مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. این گیاه دارای نوعی اثر استروژنیک بوده که می‌تواند سبب افزایش اشتها و بالا رفتن مصرف خوراک در دام‌ها شده و نرخ رشد را افزایش دهد، اما اطلاعات در این زمینه بسیار محدود می‌باشد. این پژوهش به‌منظور بررسی اثر افزودن عصاره و پودر ریشه رازیانه در جیره غذایی بر عملکرد بره‌های پرواری انجام گرفت.
مواد و روش‌ها: این آزمایش در قالب یک طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 5 تیمار و 5 تکرار با استفاده از 25 رأس بره نر از توده گوسفند مهربان با میانگین وزن اولیه 53/4 ± 87/27 کیلوگرم، در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی شیرین‌سو واقع در کبوترآهنگ از توابع همدان، اجرا شد. تیمار‌ها شامل: 1- شاهد (بدون دریافت مکمل آزمایشی)، 2- پودر ریشه گیاه رازیانه به میزان 5 گرم، 3- پودر ریشه گیاه رازیانه به میزان 10 گرم، 4- عصاره الکلی ریشه گیاه رازیانه به میزان 5/7 میلی لیتر و 5- عصاره الکلی ریشه گیاه رازیانه به میزان 15 میلی لیتر به ازای هر رأس بره در روز بودند. جیره غذایی به صورت مخلوط کامل تهیه و سه بار در روز، تا حد اشتها، در اختیار دام‌ها قرار داده شد. دوره عادت‌دهی بره‌ها به شرایط آزمایش و جیره‌های غذایی 14 روزدر نظر گرفته شد و پس از آن دوره اصلی آزمایش 89 روز در نظر گرفته شد که طی آن، تغییرات وزن بره‌ها، میزان خوراک مصرفی، افزایش وزن روزانه و ضریب تبدیل خوراک تعیین گردید. در پایان آزمایش همه بره‌ها کشتار شدند و اطلاعات مربوط به راندمان لاشه، ارگان‌‌های داخلی و وضعیت ظاهری آن‌ها بررسی شد.
یافته‌ها: افزودن 5 و 10 گرم پودر ریشه رازیانه و 5/7 میلی‌لیتر عصاره آن نسبت به تیمار شاهد و تیمار 15 میلی‌لیتر عصاره موجب افزایش وزن نهایی بیشتری در بره‌ها شد. از نظر میانگین افزایش وزن روزانه نیز بین گروه‌های آزمایشی تفاوت معنی‌داری مشاهده شد، به‌نحوی که مصرف پودر گیاه رازیانه در هر دو سطح 5 و 10 گرم و نیز عصاره آن به ‌‌میزان 5/7 میلی‌لیتر، سبب افزایش وزن روزانه بالاتری شدند (05/0P<). میانگین ماده خشک مصرفی روزانه بره‌ها تحت تأثیر تیمار‌های آزمایشی قرار گرفت (05/0P<) و میزان آن از 1345 تا 1893 گرم متغیر بود. افزودن پودر و یا عصاره ریشه رازیانه سبب تحریک اشتها شد و در نتیجه مصرف خوراک افزایش یافت. در عین حال بالاترین میزان مصرف خوراک در بره‌هایی مشاهده شد که روزانه 10 گرم پودر ریشه رازیانه را مصرف نمودند (05/0P<). میانگین ضریب تبدیل خوراک در ماه‌های دوم و سوم و نیز در کل دوره آزمایش، تحت تأثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی قرار گرفت (05/0P<)، به‌نحوی که با مصرف سطح پایین پودر و عصاره ریشه رازیانه، ضریب تبدیل تمایل به کاهش و با مصرف سطوح بالای پودر و عصاره تمایل به افزایش نشان داد. استفاده روزانه 15 میلی‌لیتر عصاره رازیانه برای هر بره سبب بالا رفتن ضریب تبدیل غذایی (75/7) نسبت به شاهد (40/6) گردید. همچنین با مصرف روزانه 10 گرم پودر رازیانه برای هر بره، ضریب تبدیل غذایی تمایل به افزایش نشان داد. در عین حال ضریب تبدیل خوراک در بره‌هایی که روزانه 5 گرم پودر (87/5) و یا 5/7 میلی‌لیتر عصاره (39/6) رازیانه دریافت کرده بودند نسبت به تیمار شاهد تفاوت معنی‌داری نداشت.
نتیجه‌گیری کلی: به‌طور کلی استفاده از مقادیر 5 و 10 گرم پودر گیاه رازیانه و نیز 5/7 میلی لیتر عصاره تهیه شده از آن سبب بالا رفتن سرعت رشد، وزن نهایی بره‌ها در پایان دوره پروار، وزن لاشه گرم و وزن لاشه سرد شد، اما میانگین راندمان لاشه و دیگر صفات لاشه در گروه‌های آزمایشی تفاوت معنی‌‌داری را نشان نداد.
واژه‌های کلیدی: بره مهربان، پرواری، رازیانه، پودر، عصاره

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of powder or extracted oil of Foeniculum vulgare root on the performance of fattening Mehraban lambs

چکیده [English]

Effect of powder and root extracted of Foeniculum vulgare on the performance of fattening Mehraban lambs

Abstract
Background and objectives: Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is one of the herbal additives which is considered as an alternative for gowth promoter instead of antibiotics in farm animals. This plant has some oestrogenic characcyeristics, enhancing the appetite and feed intake which may result in a increased growth rate in farm animals, however, there is very limited information on this context. Therefore this research was conducted to study the effect of using powder and ectract of fenenl on the fattening performance of Mehraban lambs.

Materials and methods: Twoenty five Mehraban male lambs with an initial bodey wieght of 27.87±4.53kg were used in a completely randomized desing feeding experiment, with 5 treatments and 5 replications. The Foeniculum vulgare plant was harvested from research farm of Hamedan and the rootes were cut down, cleaned and washed with tap water then allowed to dry under the sun. The dried rootes were ground into a fine powder using a 1mm sived ball mill and used as powder form or proceesed to ectarcted form for using in the experiment. The treatments were: T1) Basal diet (C), T2) C+5g Foeniculum vulgare root powder (FVP), T3) C+10g FVP, T4) C+7.5ml alchoholic extracted Foeniculum vulgare root (AEFV), T5) C+15ml AEFV per animal per day. The animals were fed a total mixed ration ad-libitum three times daily and had free access to drinking water, during 103 days experiment (14 days for adaptability and 89 days for dta coleection). Body weight gain and feed intake were recorde and feed conversion ratio was calculatd. At the end of the experiment, all animals were slaughtered and then the cacass dressing was determined and internal organs were visually considered.

Results and Discussion: Results showed that the body weight gain were 215.10, 274.40, 262.90, 275.30 and 217.70 g/d respectively for the animals allocated to treatments 1 to 5 that were significantly different between the treatments (P<0.05). The maximum (275.30) and minimum (217.70) daily gain were obtained in T4 and T5 respectively (P<0.05). These results are in agreement with the finding of other researchers where they reported 178 to 259 g/d for Mehraban male lambs (3. 14, 20). The average daily dry matter intake were different between the treatments throughout the experiment period where the highest intake (1893g) was found in T3 but the lowest intake (1345g) in T1 (P<0.05). Average feed conversion ratio was also different between the treatments with the highest amount (7.75) for T5 and the lowest amount (5.87) for T2 (P<0.05) during the whole experiment period. Results of slaughtering sowed that the warm and cold carcass weights were significantly (P<0.05) different between the treatments but carcass dressing percentages were not statistically affected by the treatments. Visual assessment of post slaughtering shwoed that the carcass characteristics and internal organs including heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs, kidney and digestive tract were normal and no statistical differences were obsereved for the wieght of internal organs between the lambs in different treatments.

Conclusion: It was concluded that utilization of fenel (Foeniculum vulgare) powder in amounts of 5 and 10 g as well as 7.5 ml fenel extracted per animal per day, positively affected growth rate and resulted in a higher live weight and carcass weight of lambs. However, othe carcass traits and internal organs were not affected by the treatments.

Key words: Fattening performance; Foeniculum vulgare plant; essential oil, Mehraban lambs

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key words: Fattening performance
  • Foeniculum vulgare plant
  • lambs
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